Physical Education: Important at the Core Study Committee on Childhood Obesity June 18, 2004
Outline • Overview of requirements / landscape for physical education • Data review (quickly) • “Questions You May Be Asked”
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2002 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman) Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC
Daily Physical Education for All Students? Only: • 8% of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten) • 6% of middle/junior high schools • 6% of senior high schools Provide daily PE (or its equivalent*) for entire school year for students. • *Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week; • secondary schools: 225 minutes / week Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000
Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991 - 2001 Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey
The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 5
The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7
The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 9
What Do Parents Want? • 81% of Adults Feel that PE should be mandatory at School* * Public Attitudes Toward Physical Education. Are Schools Providing What the Public Wants? A survey conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation International
What are Other States Doing? • Illinois - The state requires daily physical education grades K-12. • California - Cal. Education Code § 51225.3 requires and funds daily physical activity education and sports programs in primary and secondary schools. • Minnesota – Requires Physical Education as a core curriculum K-HS • Louisiana - Statute requires that all elementary school students receive a minimum of 30 minutes of quality physical activity daily.
State of North Carolina • North Carolina accounts for almost a quarter of the nation's National Board certified teachers - 3,667. The next closest state is Florida with 2,256. • Physical Education has 206 total National Board Certified teachers (8 are in Special Needs). NC lead’s the country.
North Carolina Education Rules and Regulations • Physical education should be taught each year in grades K – 8. (BEP: SBE & GS) • .5 credit of physical education is required for high school graduation (another .5 for HE) to equal 1 unit (150 hrs) to graduate from HS. (SBE)
Diplomas • There are four High School Diplomas: Career Prep, College Tech Prep, College/University Prep, and Occupational • Health and Physical Education are currently required in all four courses of study.
Physical Education in North Carolina • Healthful Living has 12 Standards: 6 are health education and 6 are physical education, each w/ specific focus at each grade level. • No state reporting. • HPE both are aligned with national standards • Healthy Active Children Policy (SBE HSP-S-000)
RECESS • We do not have any confirmed data on the amounts of recess that students receive at the Elementary School level. • The Healthy Active Children (HAC) policy will share this information with us.
Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy • By the end of the 2006-2007 school year, every Local Education Agency (LEA) will have: • Health Advisory Councils and • Developing Coordinated School Health Programs (CSHP) in every school district. • Reporting system.
Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy • No child can be kept from recess due to punishment. • Shall provide “appropriate amounts” of physical activity - and defines what physical activity means.
Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy • Recommended 150 (E) and 225 (S) minutes of PA • Addressed physical education and defines what physical education means. • Recommends physical education teacher - student ratio to be the same as other classes.
Basic Education Plan 115C - 81 The Basic Education Program : (a1) The BEP shall describe the education program to be offered to every child in the public schools. It shall provide every student in the State equal access to a Basic Education Program. Instruction shall be offered in the areas of arts, communication skills, physical education and personal health and safety, mathematics, media and computer skills, science, second languages, social studies, and vocational and technical education."
Typical QuestionsYou May Be Asked • Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess? • What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students? • How much physical education /activity do children and adolescents need? • Why do schools have to take responsibility for the physical activity of students? • What is the most important thing that this committee can do to increase physical activity among children and adolescents?
Disclaimer All physical education is not good physical education.
Quality Physical Education Provides: • Opportunity to learn • Qualified teachers • Adequate time • Meaningful content • National/state standards for physical education • Appropriate instruction • Formative and summative assessment
Examples of Quality Physical Education • All children being active • Stations • Small group games • Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors) • Choices • Variety of activities • Various practice levels • Personal goals • Cooperative Activities
Upon Graduation, A Physically Educated Person: • HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities • IS physically fit • DOES participate regularly in physical activity • KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from involvement in physical activities • VALUES physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle
National and NC Standards • Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities (Physical skills) • Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities (Knowledge) • Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity. (Physical activity)
National and NC Standards • Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness(Health-related fitness) • Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings (Behavioral skills) • Standard 6:Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (Intrinsic value)
Physical Activity vs. Physical Education • Physical activity = behavior • Physical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activity. This helps students attain the knowledge and skills of physical education and does not just provide an opportunity for students to be physically active.
Physical Activity vs. Physical Education • Students arephysically active in physical education, but students are not(comprehensively) physically educated at recess or through sport participation. Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess? No.
What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students? Unintended consequences of accountability and No Child Left Behind (NCLB).
FUNDING and TIME • Funding for: • HL Coordinators • Hiring Certified Physical Education Teachers • Facilities • Teacher Training • Time restrictions - pressures from • NCLB • Non-funded Mandates
Unintended Consequence of NCLB in North Carolina • Coaching positions at risk to keep other and “highly qualified teachers.” • Physical Education is decreasing in time and increasing in class size.
Implications of NCLB on Physical Education • NCLB does not list physical education as core, even though it is considered a core academic subject in North Carolina. • Physical Educators are teaching reading. • General Public does not understand the difference in PE and PA
Implications of NCLB on Physical Education • Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) is listed in NCLB for LEAs or community based organizations to provide leadership towards improving Physical Education and Nutrition. • Not every district has someone to apply for the LEA grant.
Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) Grants • 2001 • Kannapolis City Schools, North Carolina, $199,388 • 2002 • Columbus County Schools, $95,627 • Cumberland County Schools, $182,522 • Sugar Creek Charter School, Charlotte $104,804 • Brunswick County Public Schools, $121,923
Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) Grants • 2003 • Wake County Public School System, $493,024 • Cherokee County Schools, $277,238 • New Hanover County Schools, $149,838 • Alpha Academy Charter School, Fayetteville, $107,532
NCLB - 21st Century Schools Learning Grants • Twenty-First Centuries grants are available for providing after school and physical activity programs for students. • Physical activity is being substituted for physical education and what we teach for lifelong learners.
How much physical activity/education do children and adolescents need?
Recommended Standards for Amounts of Physical Education • Physical Education Recommendation for Schools • ES: at least 150 minutes/week • MS, HS: at least 225 minutes/week • National Association for Physical Education and Sport (NASPE) • NC State Board of Education • Many others that support the NASPE recommendation (e.g., CDC, NASBE, National Pediatric Association, CCSSO)
Recommended Standards for Amounts of Physical Activity • Physical Activity recommendations for communities (the BIG PICTURE) • At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity • NASPE • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal government), CDC, Goals 2010
Why do schools have to take responsibility for the physical activity of students?
Why Schools? • School physical education programs are the one place that: • All children can participate in regular physical activity. • All children can become physically educated for a lifetime of physical activity.
Why Schools? • School physical education programs are the one place that: • We teach mind and body for physical, social, and emotional • Have opportunity with professional to develop skills and learn appropriate information.
Why Schools? Physical Activity: • Balances Serotonin • too much - depressed • not enough - chaos Exercise and diet are a natural way to balance serotonin.
Why Schools? Physical Activity: • Elevates endorphins • The feel good chemical Exercise and diet are a natural way to elevate endorphins.