PE 254 Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation
Measurement and Evaluation in Your Daily Routine • alarm clock • gasoline gauge • speedometer • meeting new people • opinion of this class
Current Trends • public health initiatives • promotion of physical activity • problems with obesity • evaluation standards for school programs
Test and Data • Test: An instrument or activity used to accumulate data on a person’s ability to perform a specified task. In kinesiology the content of these tests are usually either cognitive, skill, or fitness. • Data: The translation of behavior into a numerical or verbal descriptor which is then recorded in written form.
Why Administer Tests? • To measure individual differences on a specific trait (behavior). • Discussion: Is a test “good” if everyone/anyone scores 100%? Or, is a test “good” if everyone/anyone scores 0%?
Use of Tests • Motivation • Achievement • Improvement • Diagnosis • Prescription • Grading • Classification • Prediction
Administrative Concerns in Test Selection • Relevance • Education value • Economic value • Time • Norms • Bias • Safety
Measurement • A measurement takes place when a “test” is given and a “score” is obtained . • If the test collects quantitative data, the score is a number. • If the test collects qualitative data, the score may be a phrase or word such as “excellent.”
Types of Assessment • Quantitative • time in one mile run • score on basketball spot shooting test • grade on weight training exam • Qualitative • “excellent” ranking on throwing form • checklist on golf swing • score on gymnastics routine
Measurement Process Involves Four Steps • Define the characteristics that you want to measure. • Select the appropriate test. This may also mean to select the appropriate testing instrument. • Administer the test. If an instrument is involved in the testing, this also means to use the instrument correctly. • Collect and record the measurement from the test.
Considerations When Taking Measurements • Remember that you are measuring a characteristic of the person—you are not measuring the person themselves; thus, make no judgments about the person. • Make no comical remarks regarding the collected data. • Have a high ethical standards when collecting the data. • Be professional.
Subjective vs. Objective Measurement • A subjective measurement is one that can possibly be interpreted differently. • An objective measurement is one that cannot be interpreted differently because of numerical values.
Class Discussion • Every time you go to a doctor’s office, they weigh you. Let’s say you weigh 140 pounds. Did your measurement of 140 pounds come from a test? Why or why not?
Evaluation • Definition 1: The process of making judgments about the results of measurement in terms of the purpose of the measurement. • Definition 2: The process of obtaining information (data) and using it to form judgments, which in turn are used in decision making.
Steps Involved in Making an Evaluation • Define the objective or the purpose of the test. • Measure the performance or administer the test. • Find or develop a standard. • Compare a person’s performance on the test to a standard. • Make the evaluation then discuss and distribute the results in the most appropriate manner.
Formative & Summative Evaluation • Formative evaluation: If the evaluation is at the beginning or during. • Summative evaluation: If the evaluation is at the end.
Professional Measurement and Evaluation • protocols for assessing injuries and charting rehabilitation • statistical information that coaches collect in athletics • fitness testing in schools • assessing a client’s fitness level and evaluating progress
Norms Evaluations are often based on norms: • Local norm: Norms based on a relatively small group of subjects. Ex: Pull-up norms for 7th grade boys at one school. • State norms: Norms that are representative of all similar subjects in the state. Ex: CAHPERD fitness norms for 7th grade boys. • National norms: Norms that are representative of all similar subjects in the United States. Ex: AAHPERD fitness norms for 7th grade girls.
Reliability • Reliability defined as the consistency of an individual when repeatedly performing the same test. • Example: If a group of people take the same test on two different days, the scores obtained should be approximately the same. • A reliable test will yield data that are stable, repeatable, and precise. • Reliability of a test refers to the dependability of test scores.
Validity • The American Psychological Association (APA) reported that validity is the most important characteristic to a test or measuring instrument. • The validity of each test can only be evaluated in terms of a particular purpose and for a particular group. • Example: A strength test that is valid for college-aged students is not necessarily valid for sedentary adults.
Group Activity • Identify the reliability and validity for administering the 1.5-mile run in college-aged students. • Identify the reliability and validity for administering a standing broad jump in elementary school students. • Identify the reliability and validity for administering basketball free throws in junior high students. • Identify the reliability and validity for administering a field goal kick in football among high school students in a physical education class.
Quick Summary:Test, Measurement, and Evaluation • Test – instrument, protocol, or technique that measures attribute of interest • Measurement – process of collecting data on attribute of interest • Evaluation – process of interpreting the collected measurement to make professional judgment of value or worth