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Industrial Hygiene. What’s an Industrial Hygienist?. A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist. Industrial Hygienist.

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Industrial Hygiene


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    1. Industrial Hygiene What’s an Industrial Hygienist? Safety 5120

    2. A professional qualified by education, training and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards and environmental issues. Industrial Hygienist Safety 5120

    3. Industrial Hygienist There has been an awareness of industrial hygiene since antiquity. The environment and its relation to worker health was recognized as early as the fourth century BC Safety 5120

    4. Not a Master… Safety 5120

    5. Industrial Hygienist In the first century AD, Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, perceived health risks to those working with zinc and sulfur. He devised a face mask made from an animal bladder to protect workers from exposure to dust and lead fumes. Safety 5120

    6. Law Codes Hammurabi Safety 5120

    7. LAW If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Ex 21:23-25 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life. 19Anyone who maims another shall suffer the same injury in return: 20fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; the injury inflicted is the injury to be suffered. Lev 24: 18-24 lex talionis Safety 5120

    8. History… In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, accurately described the pathology of lead poisoning and also recognized the hazardous exposures of copper miners to acid mists. Safety 5120

    9. Galen’s Thoughts Safety 5120

    10. This illustration accompanying Galen’s work shows the surgical procedures described by Galen—on the head, eye, leg, mouth, bladder and genitals— still practiced in the 16th century. Safety 5120

    11. Galen states that animal bodies are an unequal �mixture� of hot, cold, wet, and dry�an elaboration of the Hippocratic Pythagorean concept that the cosmos consists of four geometrically interacting primary life elements:  earth, air, water, and fire. (509)  These mixtures can become "ill balanced" and these imbalances can be vectored in various configurations.  Mixtures also define and measure objects, qualities, and other subjects, such as climate for example.  Safety 5120

    12. Elrich Ellenbog • Wrote a pamphlet on occupational • Diseases with the mining industry Safety 5120

    13. Magna Carta Year • Year: 1215 • Lead to Bill of Rights • Some other clauses still used today! Edward Coke interpreted Magna Carta to apply not only to the protection of nobles but to all subjects of the crown equally. He famously asserted: "Magna Carta is such a fellow, that he will have no sovereign." Safety 5120

    14. Magna Carta Year • Anti-corruption and fair trade (also in 1225 Charter) • Clauses 28 to 32 say that no royal officer may take any commodity such as corn, wood or transport without payment or consent or force a knight to pay for something the knight could do himself and that the king must return any lands confiscated from a felon within a year and a day. • Clause 25 sets out a list of standard measures and Clauses 41 and 42 guarantee the safety and right of entry and exit of foreign merchants. • Clause 45 says that the king should only appoint royal officers where they are suitable for the post. • Clause 46 provides for the guardianship of monasteries. Safety 5120

    15. Magna Carta Year 1215 Clause 24 states that crown officials (such as sheriffs) may not try a crime in place of a judge. Clause 34 forbids repossession without a writ precipe. Clauses 36 to 38 state that writs for loss of life or limb are to be free, that someone may use reasonable force to secure their own land and that no one can be tried on their own testimony alone. Edward Coke Safety 5120

    16. History… In the Middle Ages, guilds worked at assisting sick workers and their families. In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, advanced the science of industrial hygiene even further when, in his book De Re Metallica, he described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures. The book included suggestions for mine ventilation and worker protection, discussed mining accidents, and described diseases associated with mining occupations such as silicosis. Safety 5120

    17. Agricola suggested ventilation! Safety 5120

    18. Diseases of the Mines! Safety 5120

    19. Ventilation Horse Powered! Safety 5120

    20. History Mysticisms vrs Reality Late 1600’s it was believed that demons lived in the mines Could be controlled with fasting and prayer! Safety 5120

    21. History… Industrial hygiene gained further respectability in 1700 when Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workmen). Same time frame as the Inquisition of Galileo (His works were banned at this time!) Safety 5120

    22. Ramazzini… The book contained accurate descriptions of the occupational diseases of most of the workers of his time. Ramazzini greatly affected the future of industrial hygiene because he asserted that occupational diseases should be studied in the work environment rather than in hospital wards. The First one to ask: What is your trade? Safety 5120

    23. History… Industrial hygiene received another major boost in 1743 when Ulrich Ellenborg published a pamphlet on occupational diseases and injuries among gold miners. Ellenborg also wrote about the toxicity of carbon monoxide, mercury, lead, and nitric acid. Safety 5120

    24. Sir George Baker Colic related to lead in cider Industry. Safety 5120

    25. History… In England in the 18th century, Percival Pott, as a result of his findings on the insidious effects of soot on chimney sweepers, was a major force in getting the British Parliament to pass the Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788. The passage of the English Factory Acts beginning in 1833 marked the first effective legislative acts in the field of industrial safety. The Acts, however, were intended to provide compensation for accidents rather than to control their causes. Later, various other European nations developed workers' compensation acts, which stimulated the adoption of increased factory safety precautions and the establishment of medical services within industrial plants. Safety 5120

    26. History… In the early 20th century in the U. S., Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She observed industrial conditions first hand and startled mine owners, factory managers, and state officials with evidence that there was a correlation between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. She also presented definitive proposals for eliminating unhealthful working conditions.Reference: Exploring the Dangerous Trades Safety 5120

    27. Child Labor Law Safety 5120

    28. In 1916 Congress made its first effort to control child labour by passing the Keating-Owen Act. The legislation forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. In 1918 the Supreme Court ruled that the Keating-Owen Act was unconstitutional. Laws that Changed Safety 5120

    29. History… At about the same time, U.S. federal and state agencies began investigating health conditions in industry. In 1908, the public's awareness of occupationally related diseases stimulated the passage of compensation acts for certain civil employees. States passed the first workers' compensation laws in 1911. And in 1913, the New York Department of Labor and the Ohio Department of Health established the first state industrial hygiene programs. All states enacted such legislation by 1948. In most states, there is some compensation coverage for workers contracting occupational diseases. Safety 5120

    30. History 1966 Safety and Health - A manager’s prerogative Safety 5120

    31. The Time Line 1950 1935 1941 1970 1930 Walsh Halley Act WW II Korea Vietnam OSHA Crash Manufacturing Agriculture WW I Iron/Steel Standardized systems 11 Million Workers Safety 5120

    32. New Vulcanization Process Continuous Mining Machine Asbestosis increases Black lung increases Uranium New Petrochemical Increase respiratory disease Mine Explosion WV, 1968 1940 1970 1960 Safety 5120

    33. Time Line 1976 1941 1 Billion lbs/year 162.9 Billion lbs/year Safety 5120

    34. Time LineSynthetic Compounds Produced 70,000 58,000 17,000 1971 1980’s 1958 Safety 5120

    35. Values… $208,000 Safety 5120

    36. Federal Regulations • December 9, 1970 OSHA • Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees • Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act. Safety 5120

    37. Break! Safety 5120

    38. How do IH's Recognize and Control Hazards?Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards. Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazards.Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals.Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. (1) following proper procedures that minimize exposures (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good house-keeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited.Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present. Safety 5120

    39. History… The U.S. Congress has passed three landmark pieces of legislation relating to safeguarding workers' health: (1) the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act of 1966, (2) the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969, and (3) the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act). Today, nearly every employer is required to implement the elements of an industrial hygiene and safety, occupational health, or hazard communication program and to be responsive to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Act and its regulations. Safety 5120

    40. Administrative controls include controlling employees' exposure by scheduling production and workers' tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present. Safety 5120

    41. Activity… Now you’re the Industrial Hygienist…. Scenario What is the hazard? What is the control? Safety 5120

    42. What is oversight? Discussion Safety 5120

    43. Safety 5120

    44. Industrial Hygiene What is it? Safety 5120

    45. Definition “The science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of factors and stresses (arising in or from the workplaces), which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being or significant discomfort, and inefficiency among workers or among the citizens of a community” - ACGIH Safety 5120

    46. The science devoted to recognition (or identification), evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace, which could impair the health and well being of people at work, while also taking into account the possible impacts on the general environment - BIOH “Detection and Assessment of Occupational Hazards” Safety 5120

    47. Industrial Hygienist The person having a college or university degree or degrees in engineering, chemistry, physics, health physics, nursing, medicine, or related field, by virtue of special studies, training, experience, and/or certification has acquired competence in IH. Safety 5120