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Indian Gaming in the US

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  1. Indian Gaming in the US Indian Gaming in the US A Broad Introduction (Preface to the Triptych Case Studies) By Shalin Hai-Jew

  2. Context • Hundreds of years of misdirected federal policies towards Native Americans • Low socioeconomic status (SES), high poverty rates, and low health and other indicators of well being for Native Americans Indian Gaming in the US

  3. Tribal Sovereignty • the “central legitimating issue” for Indian gaming (Elinson, Jan. 19, 2007, n.p.) • “a matter not only of sensitivity and legal nuance” but also “the crux of dispute” related to Indian gaming (Elinson, Jan. 19, 2007, n.p.) • also labeled “dual sovereignty” (Fenelon, Nov. 2006, p. 382) Indian Gaming in the US

  4. Push for Native American Self Sufficiency • Native American Government:Reservation infrastructure building • Economic partnerships, entrepreneurial endeavors and fund-raising • Revitalizing tribal governance • Reconnecting with traditional cultures and languages • Jobs creation • Image recreation • US Government:Fewer transfer payments, more tax revenues Indian Gaming in the US

  5. “Indian Gaming” • “gaming conducted by an ‘Indian tribe’ on ‘Indian lands’” (Light and Rand, 2005, p. 3) Indian Gaming in the US

  6. Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988) Tribes… • must establish their own gaming regulatory systems; • must solely own Indian casinos; • must use net revenues for restricted purposes… Indian Gaming in the US

  7. Restricted Expenditures from Tribal Gaming • (i)to fund tribal government operations or programs; • (ii)to provide for the general welfare of the Indian tribe and its members; • (iii)to promote tribal economic development; • (iv)to donate to charitable organizations; • (v) or to help fund operations of local government agencies. Indian Gaming in the US

  8. Detractors • Some corporate casinos • Some religious groups • Some political groups • Some Native tribes and “traditionalists” Indian Gaming in the US

  9. Economic Challenges • No new wealth creation • Less taxation for state coffers • Self-contained benefits to Indian casinos with little to no “spillover” benefits • Undue infrastructure and public services burden on the local community Indian Gaming in the US

  10. Economic Challenges (cont.) • High “opportunity costs” for the tribe • Unfair support for a particular segment of society • A recycling of tribal moneys only • A rise in crime Indian Gaming in the US

  11. Tribal Relationships / Native American Cultures Challenges • Inter-tribal strife and competition • Misuse of sacred lands • Gaming is counter-cultural • Unintended social changes towards more individualism, more focus on materialism, and more cultural decay Conflict with Native American lifestyles Indian Gaming in the US

  12. Ethical and / or Moral EffectsChallenges • Promotion of problem gambling • Buying political power • Image changing for Native Americans • A compromising of Indian nationhood and sovereignty • Mainstream economic assimilation Indian Gaming in the US

  13. Timeline for Native Gaming Indian Gaming in the US

  14. Statistics Today • 567 federally recognized Indian tribes in the US • 4.1 million Americans with American Indian ancestry (1.5% of the nation’s population) • 65% of Indian tribes in lower 48 use Indian gaming for government revenue Indian Gaming in the US

  15. Statistics Today (cont.) • $22.6 billion generated by Indian gaming in 2005 Indian Gaming in the US

  16. Three Case Study Approaches • THE ECONOMICS FRAME: “All in? Economic Factors to Consider in Native Gaming” • THE SOCIAL – CULTURAL FRAME: “Smallpox or New Buffalo: What’s the Right Analogy for Native Gaming?” • THE POLITICAL FRAME: “Setting the Rules for Native Gaming” Indian Gaming in the US

  17. Using Frames to Study Indian Gaming Indian Gaming in the US

  18. Conclusion Indian Gaming in the US