Reading architecture in the CBD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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reading architecture in the cbd l.
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Reading architecture in the CBD

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  1. Reading architecture in the CBD

  2. 19th century architecture • solid • stately • subservient (to European architecture) • showy (it took wealth to pay for carved stone ornaments)

  3. Note: the heavy cornices the use of stone the use of ornament Note: the arches the attempt to create rhythm in the façade the height limitations (legal and technical causes)

  4. Classicism The self-conscious adoption of architectural motifs from Greece and Rome In part, this was a nostalgic escape from the rapid changes of industrialization

  5. 19th c. architecture was meant to be viewed from the front Where is the front of this building? can you find evidence of renovation? Hardly any 19th c. buildings would be standing if it were not for renovation efforts

  6. Art Deco the “futuristic” style of a bygone era

  7. Art Deco • a short-lived but distinctive style: 1920s and 1930s • name is from the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs Industriels et Modernes (Paris) which celebrated living in the modern world. • inspired by Cubism, Russian Constructivism and Italian Futurism • celebrated the rise of commerce, technology, and speed • repeating and overlapping images • streamlined forms • organic lines mixed with repetitive geometrical patterns

  8. The “wedding cake” style

  9. Why employ the wedding cake style? • concerns with light and air • setback laws were enacted in the 1920s when height limit laws were rescinded • structural concerns (reduction of weight as you ascend, concentration of mass at the base, like a pyramid) • aesthetics (it was one way to make a tall building even more expressive of height)

  10. surface ornaments (bas relief) were common flowing and sweeping “American Gothic” lines these images and part of the definition above come from ArtLex, an online art dictionary http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/artdeco.html

  11. MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE

  12. Philosophical foundations • Louis Sullivan: “form follows function” • utilitarianism • Adolf Loos “ornament is crime” • egalitarian social ethos and simplicity • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe “less is more” • minimalism

  13. The Lever Building, 1950Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

  14. Seagram Building 1957 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

  15. Unité d’Habitation, 1962Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret)

  16. Aesthetic elements (1950s & 1960s) • Purity of form • Simplicity • Communication of power • Massiveness • Lack of (apparent) concern about weight • Uniformity of façade • Gradual evolution (in 1970s) toward more complex geometries and more interesting surfaces

  17. Pennzoil Place (Houston) 1976Johnson/Burgee Architects and S.I. Morris Associates

  18. However … • Our focus has been on commercial and office buildings • Residential architecture in this period was much more varied in form (e.g. Habitat, Montreal) • Image Source: www.GreatBuildings.com

  19. Postmodern Architecture Playful Pretty Seductive

  20. Note: Use of circles and squares Polished stone facing Banners Ornamentation returns, but not as moldings or cornices: visual more than textural Consumption spaces rather than production spaces set the overall tone: buildings are designed to look like nice places to buy things, eat, drink, enjoy one’s leisure time

  21. Retreat from the Street

  22. Why is there a retreat from the street? • Air pollution • Noise pollution • Classism • Racism • Lack of activity at street level • Lack of public funding to maintain shared spaces

  23. Hi-tech surveillance

  24. Enormous quasi-public spaces are created for transients…but not the poor ones!

  25. Juxtapositions

  26. What happened here?

  27. When in doubt … • Ask someone in the building if they know about its history • Look for a plaque on the outside wall or in the lobby • Look at the state of the materials • stone erodes in urban areas due to acid rain • corners of buildings show wear and tear from passing vehicles and people • metal corrodes or rusts