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Successful Strategies for Teaching Second Language Acquisition and Literacy Development June 15, 2009 www.eeciseminars.com Presented by Fay Shin, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Long Beach Department of Teacher Education fshin@csulb.edu.

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slide1

Successful Strategies for Teaching Second Language Acquisition and Literacy Development

June 15, 2009

www.eeciseminars.com

Presented by

Fay Shin, Ph.D.

Professor

California State University, Long Beach

Department of Teacher Education

fshin@csulb.edu

slide2
Identify students’ English proficiency levels according to the required national, state or district ESL standards
  • National ESL Standards (TESOL):
    • Beginning (Level 1)
    • Intermediate (Level 2)
    • Advanced (Level 3)
second language acquisition
Second language acquisition
  • A. Language is acquired when it is meaningful.
  • B. Comprehensible input is required.

“ We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input”

(Krashen, 1988)

order for esl instructional medium
Order for ESL Instructional Medium
  • *Realia- real objects Most effective
  • *Model of the object
  • *Photos
  • *Drawings
  • *Written Word
  • *Oral Word Least effective
slide8
“ We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input”

(Krashen, 1988)

slide9
Primary language vs. second language as a medium of instruction?
  • “time on task” theory
affective variables relate to the success in second language acquistion
Affective variables relate to the success in second language acquistion.
  • 1. Affective variables:
    • Motivation
    • Self-confidence
    • Anxiety
  • 2. When teaching English language learners, teachers need to remember to keep the learner’s affective filter low
academic language
Academic Language
  • 1. Cognitively demanding and complex concepts need to be taught through sheltered instruction or SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English)
  • 2. Content area instruction provides challenging vocabulary and gives ELLs the opportunity to keep up in subject matter. Instruction must be comprehensible.
important components for an esl program
Important components for an ESL program
  • ESL “time” must occur daily
  • Includes instruction focusing on needs for specific English proficiency levels:
    • Students are grouped according to English proficiency levels and needs
  • Minimum 45 minutes
  • Encourages oral participation
  • Builds on student’s prior knowledge and experiences
sdaie strategies for the esl classroom
SDAIE Strategies for the ESL Classroom

Speak slowly

Lots of visuals and realia

Context embedded

Manipulatives and

hands-on

Build on prior knowledge

Limit teacher-centered lectures

TPR (total physical response)

Use grouping strategies

Focus on the meaning, not the form

Graphic organizers

Preview-review

Alternative assessment

Make the text comprehensible (Give ELLs access to the content)

Make home-school connections (connect home language and culture with school)

Independent reading opportunities

slide14
Differentiated instructional planning and lesson delivery is recommended because it considers WHO is being taught, not just WHAT is being taught
activities for language acquisition stages
Activities for Language Acquisition Stages

Beginning - Level 1

  • Characteristics:
    • Students have very little comprehension
    • No verbal production
  • Activities:
    • Use lots of visual aids and slow speech.
    • Oral production not forced.
    • Key words written on board.
    • TPR (Total Physical Response)
    • Use realia.
  • Student tasks include:
    • listening physical actions
    • drawing gesturing
    • matching
  • Examples of questions:
    • Find the….
    • Point to the…..
    • Walk to the…..
slide16
Beginning – Level 1

Characteristics:

Students have limited comprehension

one or two word responses.

Activities:

pictures

role playing

charts and graphs

labels

Student tasks include:

One or two word responses.

Naming, labeling

Listing

Categorizing

Yes/no answers

Examples of questions

Where is the….?

Is this a table? Yes or no?

What color is the…?

intermediate level 2
Intermediate - Level 2
  • Characteristics:
    • Good comprehension
    • Simple sentences with limited vocabulary
    • Many errors in grammar, syntax and pronunciation
  • Activities:
    • Matching, classifying
    • Games
    • Group discussions
    • Charts and tables
  • Student tasks:
    • Small group work
    • Summarizing
    • Describing and explaining
    • Role playing
    • Complete sentences
    • Retelling
  • Examples of questions:
    • Tell me about…
    • Why did the….
    • Describe….
    • What do you think….
    • How did the boy feel….
advanced level 3
Advanced -Level 3
  • Characteristics:
    • Excellent comprehension
    • Few grammar errors
    • Appears fluent when speaking, but has problems with high level academics and literacy
  • Activities:
    • Paraphrasing
    • Use SDAIE strategies
    • Journals
    • Oral discussions
    • Language experience
    • Outlining and mapping
    • Newspaper articles
  • Student tasks:
    • Analyzing
    • Prediction
    • Give instructions
    • Giving opinions, justifying
    • Reading and writing
  • Examples of questions:
    • Compare (the lion and the tiger….)
    • Contrast (the desert and the rain forest)
    • Which do you prefer? Why?
    • How do you think this story will end?
distance from the sun in millions of miles
Distance from the sun (in millions of miles)

Pluto- 3,688 (explain it used to be a planet but it is now “demoted” to dwarf planet status)

Neptune – 2,794

Uranus – 1784

Saturn – 887

Jupiter – 483

Mars – 142

Earth – 93

Venus – 67

Mercury – 36

slide20

Quick Start GuideThis is an example of explicit directions and questions for how a lesson plan card can be used. It is intended to be only a guideline for a person not familiar with the program to demonstrate one way of teaching it.

Topic: Zoo Animals (ELD Lesson Plan Card 3.1 Level A)

  • Whole Group (Levels 1, 2 and 3) Instruction
  • Introduction/Background/Motivation:
  • Introduce zoo animals and vocabulary using picture cards, stuffed animals, photographs, books, videos, realia (real objects), or actual animals if possible. For example, to motivate students:
  • bring an animal (like a snake or bird) into the classroom and let students touch or hold it.
  • Bring different kinds and sizes of stuffed animals or animal figurines and put them in the front of the class
  • Ask students to bring their favorite stuffed animal to class.
  • Show pictures of a zoo and ask students if they have ever been to the zoo.
  • Ask students: How many of you have been to the zoo before?
  • What animals have you seen at the zoo?
  • What do you do at the zoo?
  • Record responses on chart paper. Make a table or draw a cluster map representing the answers.
  • Read a book about animals or the zoo. Using the book A Trip to the Zoo, show the front cover and ask students if they can predict what the book is about. Say and ask students questions such as:
  • I am going to read a book.
  • Does anybody know what this book is going to be about?
  • Why do you think the book is going to be about _______?
beginning level 1
Beginning (Level 1)
  • Some vocabulary words for zoo animals: elephant, lion, alligator, bear, eating.
  • Guided Instruction: Using realia (real objects), visuals or picture cards, point to the animal and identify them several times. Say the words and enunciate each word slowly and clearly.
  • (Teacher points as she says the following):
  • This is an elephant.
  • Say elephant.
  • Is this a lion?(pointing to the elephant picture). No. This is an elephant.
  • This is a lion. (point to a lion)
  • Is this a lion? Yes.
  • This is an alligator. This is a bear. (Repeat with different animals)
  • What animal is this?
  • Point to the alligator.
  • What color is the bear?
  • What is the bear eating?
intermediate level 2 and advanced level 3
Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3)
  • Vocabulary words: fur, wings, trunk, scale, sharp
  • (Note: These words are in addition to the Beginning- Level 1 vocabulary. Review vocabulary words for Level 1 first)
  • Guided Instruction:
  • Introduce vocabulary words pointing to the pictures.
  • Lions have fur. Do you know other animals that have fur?
  • This elephant has a trunk. Do you have a trunk? Does a lion have a trunk?
  • Birds have wings.
  • Have students identify and classify the animals.
  • Which animals have fur?
  • Which animals have wings?
  • Which animals have a trunk?
  • Ask students to come up and show the class an animal you name.
  • Sally, where is the lion? Come to the front and hold it for me.
  • Juan, where is the alligator? Come to the front and hold it for me.
  • Who is holding the bear?
  • Which animal do you like?
  • If you like lions, come and stand next to Sally.
  • Tell me about this bear.
  • Describe what a giraffe looks like.
  • What do you think about alligators?
  • Why do you think a giraffe has a long neck?
  • Why do you think alligators have sharp teeth?
  • Why do you think bears have lots of fur?
  • Which animals do you like? Why?
  • Which animal would you prefer? Why?
  • Compare an elephant and a giraffe.
slide23
Language Experience Approach activity
  • Choose a topic (zoo animals, lions, our favorite animals, etc.)
  • Write the title or topic on chart paper or a white board.
  • Ask students to create a story or give you sentences about the topic.
  • Write the sentences on the chart paper.
  • When you are finished, read the sentences to the class slowly and clearly.
  • Read it again but ask students to read it with you.
  • Ask students to read it on their own if they can (silently or outloud)
  • Ask students to copy the sentences on a piece of paper.
  • Have students illustrate their own paper.
  • Example of a Language Experience activity:
  • Zoo animals
  • There are lots of animals at the zoo.
  • I like the lions.
  • I like elephants.
  • Lions have fur.
  • Elephants are big and have trunks.
  • Take-home book: Small and Big Animals
  • Pass out copies of the take-home book. Fold and staple them together.
  • Read the take home book to the students.
  • Repeat and ask students to read it with you.
  • Have students read the take home book silently.
  • Have students color the pictures and complete the activity on the last page (let students work independently, in pairs, or in groups if they choose)
slide24

Components for ESL Lessons

  • Each lesson should have at least one or more SDAIE strategy listed for each component of the lesson.
  • Lesson topic or theme:
  • Grade and English Language proficiency level:
  • Language objective:Content objective:
  • ESL Standards
  • Key vocabulary:
  • Supplementary materials:
  • Introduction or motivation strategies for ESL Lessons:
  • (Build background and connect prior knowledge)
  • Realia, Graphic organizers: clusters, mapping, charts, tables
  • Ask questions about what they know, Share personal experiences, KWL , reflective journals or charts
  • Picture cards, Photos, Literature, Field trip, Games, Poem, Music and songs
  • Guided Instruction/teaching:
  • (presentation, teaching sequence)
  • Independent activity, Practice, Application:
  • Oral Practice
  • Reading and Writing
  • Assessment/evaluation:
  • Extended Activities:
esl lesson plan template
ESL Lesson Plan Template
  • Lesson topic or theme:
  • Grade and English language proficiency level:
  • Language objectives:Content objective:
  • Key vocabulary:
  • Supplementary materials:
  • Introduction or motivation strategies:
  • Guided Instruction/teaching:
  • Independent activity, Practice, Application:
  • Assessment/evaluation:
  • Extended Activities
slide26

Example of differentiated activities for Vocabulary Development

Vocabulary words for clothing:

pants, dress, socks, shirt, scarf, hat, skirt, blouse

Reminder: Use realia or pictures to demonstrate

  • Beginning (Preproduction and Early Production, Level 1)
  • (Teacher points as she says the following):
  • Everybody wears different clothes.
  • I (the teacher) am wearing a skirt and blouse.
  • He is wearing a shirt. He is wearing pants. He is wearing socks.
  • She is wearing pants and a shirt.
  • She is wearing a scarf.
  • She is wearing a dress.
  • Point to shirt.
  • Point to the socks.
  • Point to the pants.
  • Point to the scarf.
  • Are you wearing a skirt?
  • Are you wearing socks?
  • Is this a hat?
  • Is this a dress?
  • Intermediate (Level 2 or speech emergence)
  • What is she wearing? (point to her blouse)
  • What is this? (point to socks, pants, skirt, etc.)
  • What do you wear with pants?
  • Is this a dress or a blouse?
  • Advanced (Level 3 or intermediate fluency)
  • Why are you wearing pants?
  • What do you like to wear? Why?
  • Do you prefer to wear pants or a skirt?
  • Why do you think people wear clothes?
  • Describe what she is wearing.
integrating poetry language arts in the content area
Integrating poetry/language arts in the content area
  • ACROSTIC POEMS

Volatile explosion

Occasionally erupts

Lava over rocks

Can we get out of the way?

Ash can come out too

Not safe

Oh my! By Randy Drumm

acrostic poems
Acrostic Poems

Generates differences

sEquence of DNA

No two alike

chromosomE by Vicente Perez

Warm

Extreme weather

Air pressure

Thunder storm

Heat wave

Evaporate

Rain storms by Steve Vang

bio poems
BIO Poems
  • I am ________
  • I feel _______
  • I think ________
  • I like ________
  • I don’t like ______
  • I have _________________
  • I ___________
        • Example: I am (a lion, the sun, an apple, winter)
          • I am (the sun)
          • I feel  (hot )
          • I think  (people like me)
          • I like  (to make the earth warm)
          • I am (made of hydrogen and helium)
          • I provide energy
          • I provide heat
          • I provide light
slide34

Frayer Model (for vocabulary development or concept development)

Students can develop their understanding of a word or concept by having them analyze a word’s essential and non-essential characteristics. Have students write a definition, list characteristics and write examples and non examples of the concept or word.

(Adapted from Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)

definition

Examples

The third planet in order from the sun with an orbital period of 365 days

earth

Non-examples

characteristics

5th largest planet

Has life

71% covered in water

Atmosphere: 77% nitrogen

21% oxygen

Star

Moon

No life

qar question answer relationship strategy raphael 1982 1986
QAR (Question – Answer – Relationship) Strategy(Raphael, 1982, 1986)
  • This strategy is designed to connect reading purpose to text and to the reader’s personal experiences and information sources. QAR can be used to help children understand the thinking demands of questions.
  • There are four categories of information sources:
  • Right There – the information is stated explicitly in the text.
  • Think and Search – The information is still in the text, but must be inferred or concluded from various statements in the text. This involves the interpretive level of thinking (explanation, compare/contrast, cause/effect, list/example).
  • Author and You – The information is a combination from the text and the students’ background knowledge. This level requires use of the interpretive, applicative, or transactive , level of thinking.
  • On My Own – this information is primarily from the readers’ background knowledge. Uses the transactive or applicative level of thinking.
slide37

What is Electricity?

Electricity is a type of energy. Energy is a force that makes things work. We use electricity to do many things. Electricity lights our homes. It helps us search the Internet. It even helps us wash our clothes. Our world would be a very different place without electricity.

Electricity is possible because of tiny pieces of matter called atoms. Atoms are so small we cannot see them. Still, we know that they make up everything in the world, including people. To understand how electricity works, we need to understand more about atoms.

All atoms are made up of even smaller particles called protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge. Neutrons have no charge. Positive and negative charges attract, or move toward each other. Similar charges repel, or move away from each other. Atoms usually have equal positive and negative charges, so they are neutral.

(excerpt from: It’s Electric! By Greg Roza. Rosen Classroom Books and Materials. 2003).

slide38

After reading the passage, form small

  • groups and answer the questions together.
  • Evaluate which QAR category these
  • questions will represent.
  • 1. What kind of particles are atoms made up of?
  • 2. How does electricity affect our lives?
  • 3. How do you use electricity?
  • 4. Do you think electricity is important?
  • 5. What makes our refrigerator, television and computer work?
  • What is the difference between protons
    • and neutrons?
slide39

Teach the Text Backwards

  • (CAL and Delta Systems, 1998)
  • Traditional Sequence of Textbook Reading:
  • 4. Read the text.
  • 3. Answer the questions at the end of the chapter.
  • 2. Discuss the material in class.
  • Do the applications or expansion activities.
  • Teaching the Text Backwards
  • 1. Do the applications or expansion activities.
  • a. Connect to background knowledge
  • b. Motivation
  • 2. Discuss the material in class.
    • Use visuals, realia
    • Give main points
  • 3. Answer the questions at the end of the chapter.
    • Form study questions from comprehension questions.
  • 4. Read the text.
  • 5. Return to study questions and answer.
  • 6. Do additional application/expansion activities.
dialogue journals benefit children because
Dialogue journals benefit children because:
  • Students receive an individual reply from their teacher (Hae Joon)
  • Students experiment with writing in English or the second language in a meaningful context (Elena)
  • Build communication skills
  • Build authentic literacy skills
  • Students choose their own topics
dialogue journals benefit teachers because
Dialogue journals benefit teachers because:
  • It provides a weekly developmental record of the child’s writing
  • Models writing in an authentic context
  • Helps children make the connection between oral and written language
  • Learn about the child and his/her interests
dialogue journals as a tool for writing instruction for english language learners
ELLs need more guidance and collaborative writing opportunities

ELLs need to have an opportunity to feel free to write and express themselves without their writing (spelling, grammar) being corrected

Writing process, writer’s workshop, composing process (brainstorming/pre-write, draft, edit, revise, publish) is a separate component of writing instruction.

Dialogue journals as a tool for writing instruction for English Language Learners
slide49
“Vietnamese was my first language and it was tough trying to learn English.

An instrumental person that helped develop my literacy is my sixth grade teacher Mr. Jones. Although I was only his student for a year, we built a friendship that grew outside of the classroom. He became a caring friend and a person I deeply admired. He helped me with my reading and writing abilities through the process of daily journal assignments. We had to write in our journal every day after lunchtime for approximately 10 minutes. Mr. Jones allowed us to free write about anything that we felt a desire for.

I would write about what happened outside of school the previous day. Then Mr. Jones would read our entries and comment on them. Usually, he replied with thoughtful feedback and encouragement. This gave me the impression that he really did care about his students because some of my early grade teachers never responded to our writings.

slide50
This activity made me feel like I was having my own little conversations with Mr. Jones. I was so comfortable with Mr. Jones that I started to write about many things. I really enjoyed that journal assignment because it allowed me to express my feelings and thoughts without having any restrictions or barriers. I often found myself not having enough time to write everything that I wanted to put on paper.

I was also excited to see how Mr. Jones would respond to my entry each day. This assignment improved my literacy skills because I was eager to read and write.

For the first time in my childhood, I wanted to read and write more than hanging out with my friends.”

  • Bobby Nguyen
  • College student
  • Long Beach, California September 2005
slide51
Writing Prompts/Journal Topics
  • What is…
  • What is your favourite holiday? What makes this holiday special?
  • What is your favourite day of the week?
  • What is your favourite month? Why?
  • What if...
  • What would happen if you could fly whenever you wanted? When would you use this ability?
  • What would happen if there were no television? Why would this be good? bad?
  • I wish...
  • I wish I had a million... Then I would...
  • I wish I had one... because
  • I wish I could be like.... This person is special because....
  • I wish to be a ________ when I grow up. Then I will....
  • I wish there were a law that said..... This would be a good law because....
  • I wish I could forget the time I ..... because....
  • I wish trees could..... because....
  • I wish I could see...... because.....
  • I wish I could hear......
  • I wish I
  • www.CanTeach.ca
  • www.canteach.ca/elementary/prompts.html
slide53

*Reading as a leisure activity is the best predictor of

reading skills

*Free voluntary reading results in better:

Reading comprehension

Writing style

Vocabulary

Spelling

Grammatical development

slide54
Reading Development:

From Research to Practice

The following materials are from:

Shin, F. and Krashen, S. (2008). Summer Reading: Program and Evidence. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

free voluntary reading results in better
Free voluntary reading results in better:
  • Reading comprehension
  • Writing style
  • Vocabulary
  • Spelling
  • Grammatical development
summary of the research on vocabulary development
Summary of the research on vocabulary development
  • “More reading increases vocabulary development” (R.C. Anderson, 1996):
  • Found small but highly reliable increments in word knowledge attributable to reading at all grade and ability levels.
  • Likelihood of learning an unfamiliar word while reading was about 1 in 20.
  • The likelihood increased to 1 in 10 when children were reading easy narratives to near zero when they were reading difficult expositions.
anderson wilson and fielding 1988
Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding (1988):
  • Average U.S. fifth grader reads about 600,000 words a year from books, magazines, and newspapers outside of school.
  • If a student reads 15 minutes a day in school, another 600,000 words of text could be covered.
  • Therefore, a conservative estimate of the total volume of reading of a typical fifth grader in the U.S. is 1 million or more words per year
  • Estimated that a child who reads 1 million words a year will encounter 20,000 unfamiliar words.
slide59
With a 5% chance of learning a word, 1,000 words a year from reading may be learned.
  • When self selected or assigned material is not too difficult, the chances of learning an unfamiliar word rise to 10% or more….and yearly that is 2,000 words.
  • Note: These are figures for average readers. Avid readers may be learning two or three times as many words simply from reading.
slide60

Nagy and Herman(1987):Found in typical classroom 300 words a year, at most, are covered in direct instruction aimed specifically at word learning.Conclusion: even in an ideal program of vocabulary instruction, the number of words actually learned in a year will still be in the hundreds. In contrast, the number of words learned in a year from independent reading is in the thousands for the typical child.

slide61

Conclusion: Independent reading appears to be a far more important source of vocabulary growth than direct vocabulary instruction.

oral language and vocabulary growth
Oral Language and vocabulary growth
  • Oral language is primary for young children, and continues to be important throughout life.
  • Oral language is not the primary source for vocabulary growth when a child has become a fluent and frequent reader.Reason: conversation and popular television shows do not contain a sufficiently rich vocabulary to allow for growth (natural conversation).
  • Conclusion: At least one-third, and maybe two-thirds, of the typical child’s annual vocabulary growth comes as the natural consequence of reading books, magazines, and newspapers.
  • Reading aloud is different when there is a discussion and shared book approach (vocabulary from book is richer).
the benefits of comic books
The benefits of comic books
  • Reading one comic book a week would mean reading 100,000 words a year.
  • The vocabulary in comics can be complex.
  • Library use increased when comic books were available.
  • Comic books lead to other reading
  • Texts of comics are linguistically appropriate and pictures make it comprehensible.
comic book texts can be complex
Comic book texts can be complex
  • “The Psycho-Man has a vast technology at his command, darling, but he had traditionally used it to only one end: to manipulate emotions. Everything he does is designed to create conflicting, confusing emotional stimuli for his intended victims.”
  • (The Fantastic Four, no. 283, 1985, p.21)
  • (Source: Krashen,1993, Power of Reading. p. 52).
summer reading program
Summer Reading Program
  • Objectives of the 6 week program
    • 1. Demonstrate how independent (or self-selected) reading can be effective in the classroom.
    • 2. Provide access to interesting reading materials (popular books and magazines).
    • 3. Motivate students to read (at home as well as in school) and promote a more positive attitude towards reading.
    • (Shin, F. & Krashen, S. 2007. Summer Reading: Program and Evidence. Allyn and Bacon.)
summer school day 4 hours daily
Summer school day (4 hours daily)
  • 25 minutes library time for daily access to books (also independent reading during this time).
  • 90 minutes of Independent Reading (during this time individual conferences are held)
  • 45 minutes of literature-based or “guided reading” instruction
  • 45 minutes of project activity (book publishing, book posters, newspaper publishing)
  • 20 minutes of read aloud, paired reading, or shared reading activity
unedited comments from students
Unedited comments from students
  • This summer school reading rogram is great. It has improved my reading alot. The best part of this program is the there were alot of Goose-Bumps to read. After you read some books, you get books free. Now, it has made me like reading more.
  • I think that we had good books to read. I think they should have this program every summer. This program has done me a lot of good. I would want to comeback if they are gong to have this program agine.
  • This summer school has got me more in to reading than I ever imangin. I start likeing R. l Stine, Goosebumps, and bady Sitter's club. I even start reading the newspaper. I know now how fun reading is.
  • Summer school was great I had fun. The things I liked about summer school was Reading the books and stuff. Well at first I didn't like to Read like fear street ones. Maybe I will even Read at home to. May be I'll come back next year.
  • I think this summer school program was okay because of the reading. They made me read alot and after a while I had the most books read in my class. I think I'll come back next year.
  • I think I learn much in the progran. My mom said you read batter then I was reading before. My mom proud of me.
slide68
This is what I like about summer school is because you. Get to read books when you have free time and you get. To pick your very on book you wont to read. In your teacher can help you when you wont help. thats what I like.

Summer school was great I had fun. The things I liked about summer school was Reading the books and stuff. Well at first I didn’t like to Read like fear street ones. Maybe I will even Read at home to. May be I’ll come back next year.

I thought this program is great now I’m not so lazy any more like I used to be. Now I read all the tine this program help me and others a hole lot.

This yare in summer school, I thouht the best part was when we went outside and read. I liked it because we got to cool of and have fun at the same time. Iliked my teacher as well she is a great teacher, and I think you should keep her next year. Thank you

slide69

Daily Reading Log

Student's Name_____________________

Date Title Comments Teacher

slide70

Book Record

Student's Name: ________________________Date: _____________

Title: ___________________________________________

Author: ___________________________Genre:_________________

I would rate this book (circle one number):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Awful Okay Excellent

 

Comments or thoughts (optional):

Teacher's signature__________________________

stages of reading development leonhardt 1993
1. Leafing through books and magazines

2. Reading comics, magazines and newspapers

3. The first book (first book in a series)

4. Very narrow reading (Goosebumps, Captain Underpants)

5. Branching out – slowly (teacher encouragement)

6. Wider reading

7. Independently finding books

Stages of Reading Development (Leonhardt, 1993)
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Strategies for supplementing an

Independent Reading Program for your classroom

  • This reading program can be in addition to your Independent Reading program, but should not replace it.
  • Group students (either by reading interests, reading level or language proficiency level)
  • Have multiple sets of a variety of books and reading materials (5-6 copies of each title, instead of a class set of 30). This will offer students a larger variety of reading materials to choose from. Reading materials should include everything from “fun” books (Captain Underpants), to real literature.
  • Have a list of books available for students to read (class list).
  • Students in each group will vote on which book they want to read or students take turns within the group and select a book.
  • Each day, the teacher will meet with one or two groups (instead of the whole class) and provide instruction, reading activities and discussion for the book they chose. The teacher will also guide them and provide goals for completion of the book.
  • During this time, the other students are reading independently or as a group.
  • The teacher will have a folder for each group which s/he will use to monitor students.
  • Each class set of books should also have a set of reading activities to go with it.
think pair share
Think-Pair-Share
  • Think about these questions and share your answers with a partner.
  • 1. How important is independent reading in your curriculum?
  • Do you think you will implement independent reading into your daily reading schedule (if you haven’t already)? How many minutes a day?
  • What problems do you foresee in trying to implement a daily independent reading program?
  • How will an independent reading program help your English Language Learners?