Successful Strategies for Teaching Second Language Acquisition and Literacy Development June 15, 2009 www.eeciseminars.com Presented by Fay Shin, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Long Beach Department of Teacher Education email@example.com
Identify students’ English proficiency levels according to the required national, state or district ESL standards • National ESL Standards (TESOL): • Beginning (Level 1) • Intermediate (Level 2) • Advanced (Level 3)
Second language acquisition • A. Language is acquired when it is meaningful. • B. Comprehensible input is required. “ We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input” (Krashen, 1988)
Order for ESL Instructional Medium • *Realia- real objects Most effective • *Model of the object • *Photos • *Drawings • *Written Word • *Oral Word Least effective
“ We acquire language when we understand the messages or obtain Comprehensible Input” (Krashen, 1988)
Primary language vs. second language as a medium of instruction? • “time on task” theory
Affective variables relate to the success in second language acquistion. • 1. Affective variables: • Motivation • Self-confidence • Anxiety • 2. When teaching English language learners, teachers need to remember to keep the learner’s affective filter low
Academic Language • 1. Cognitively demanding and complex concepts need to be taught through sheltered instruction or SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) • 2. Content area instruction provides challenging vocabulary and gives ELLs the opportunity to keep up in subject matter. Instruction must be comprehensible.
Important components for an ESL program • ESL “time” must occur daily • Includes instruction focusing on needs for specific English proficiency levels: • Students are grouped according to English proficiency levels and needs • Minimum 45 minutes • Encourages oral participation • Builds on student’s prior knowledge and experiences
SDAIE Strategies for the ESL Classroom Speak slowly Lots of visuals and realia Context embedded Manipulatives and hands-on Build on prior knowledge Limit teacher-centered lectures TPR (total physical response) Use grouping strategies Focus on the meaning, not the form Graphic organizers Preview-review Alternative assessment Make the text comprehensible (Give ELLs access to the content) Make home-school connections (connect home language and culture with school) Independent reading opportunities
Differentiated instructional planning and lesson delivery is recommended because it considers WHO is being taught, not just WHAT is being taught
Activities for Language Acquisition Stages Beginning - Level 1 • Characteristics: • Students have very little comprehension • No verbal production • Activities: • Use lots of visual aids and slow speech. • Oral production not forced. • Key words written on board. • TPR (Total Physical Response) • Use realia. • Student tasks include: • listening physical actions • drawing gesturing • matching • Examples of questions: • Find the…. • Point to the….. • Walk to the…..
Beginning – Level 1 Characteristics: Students have limited comprehension one or two word responses. Activities: pictures role playing charts and graphs labels Student tasks include: One or two word responses. Naming, labeling Listing Categorizing Yes/no answers Examples of questions Where is the….? Is this a table? Yes or no? What color is the…?
Intermediate - Level 2 • Characteristics: • Good comprehension • Simple sentences with limited vocabulary • Many errors in grammar, syntax and pronunciation • Activities: • Matching, classifying • Games • Group discussions • Charts and tables • Student tasks: • Small group work • Summarizing • Describing and explaining • Role playing • Complete sentences • Retelling • Examples of questions: • Tell me about… • Why did the…. • Describe…. • What do you think…. • How did the boy feel….
Advanced -Level 3 • Characteristics: • Excellent comprehension • Few grammar errors • Appears fluent when speaking, but has problems with high level academics and literacy • Activities: • Paraphrasing • Use SDAIE strategies • Journals • Oral discussions • Language experience • Outlining and mapping • Newspaper articles • Student tasks: • Analyzing • Prediction • Give instructions • Giving opinions, justifying • Reading and writing • Examples of questions: • Compare (the lion and the tiger….) • Contrast (the desert and the rain forest) • Which do you prefer? Why? • How do you think this story will end?
Distance from the sun (in millions of miles) Pluto- 3,688 (explain it used to be a planet but it is now “demoted” to dwarf planet status) Neptune – 2,794 Uranus – 1784 Saturn – 887 Jupiter – 483 Mars – 142 Earth – 93 Venus – 67 Mercury – 36
Quick Start GuideThis is an example of explicit directions and questions for how a lesson plan card can be used. It is intended to be only a guideline for a person not familiar with the program to demonstrate one way of teaching it. Topic: Zoo Animals (ELD Lesson Plan Card 3.1 Level A) • Whole Group (Levels 1, 2 and 3) Instruction • Introduction/Background/Motivation: • Introduce zoo animals and vocabulary using picture cards, stuffed animals, photographs, books, videos, realia (real objects), or actual animals if possible. For example, to motivate students: • bring an animal (like a snake or bird) into the classroom and let students touch or hold it. • Bring different kinds and sizes of stuffed animals or animal figurines and put them in the front of the class • Ask students to bring their favorite stuffed animal to class. • Show pictures of a zoo and ask students if they have ever been to the zoo. • Ask students: How many of you have been to the zoo before? • What animals have you seen at the zoo? • What do you do at the zoo? • Record responses on chart paper. Make a table or draw a cluster map representing the answers. • Read a book about animals or the zoo. Using the book A Trip to the Zoo, show the front cover and ask students if they can predict what the book is about. Say and ask students questions such as: • I am going to read a book. • Does anybody know what this book is going to be about? • Why do you think the book is going to be about _______?
Beginning (Level 1) • Some vocabulary words for zoo animals: elephant, lion, alligator, bear, eating. • Guided Instruction: Using realia (real objects), visuals or picture cards, point to the animal and identify them several times. Say the words and enunciate each word slowly and clearly. • (Teacher points as she says the following): • This is an elephant. • Say elephant. • Is this a lion?(pointing to the elephant picture). No. This is an elephant. • This is a lion. (point to a lion) • Is this a lion? Yes. • This is an alligator. This is a bear. (Repeat with different animals) • What animal is this? • Point to the alligator. • What color is the bear? • What is the bear eating?
Intermediate (Level 2) and Advanced (Level 3) • Vocabulary words: fur, wings, trunk, scale, sharp • (Note: These words are in addition to the Beginning- Level 1 vocabulary. Review vocabulary words for Level 1 first) • Guided Instruction: • Introduce vocabulary words pointing to the pictures. • Lions have fur. Do you know other animals that have fur? • This elephant has a trunk. Do you have a trunk? Does a lion have a trunk? • Birds have wings. • Have students identify and classify the animals. • Which animals have fur? • Which animals have wings? • Which animals have a trunk? • Ask students to come up and show the class an animal you name. • Sally, where is the lion? Come to the front and hold it for me. • Juan, where is the alligator? Come to the front and hold it for me. • Who is holding the bear? • Which animal do you like? • If you like lions, come and stand next to Sally. • Tell me about this bear. • Describe what a giraffe looks like. • What do you think about alligators? • Why do you think a giraffe has a long neck? • Why do you think alligators have sharp teeth? • Why do you think bears have lots of fur? • Which animals do you like? Why? • Which animal would you prefer? Why? • Compare an elephant and a giraffe.
Language Experience Approach activity • Choose a topic (zoo animals, lions, our favorite animals, etc.) • Write the title or topic on chart paper or a white board. • Ask students to create a story or give you sentences about the topic. • Write the sentences on the chart paper. • When you are finished, read the sentences to the class slowly and clearly. • Read it again but ask students to read it with you. • Ask students to read it on their own if they can (silently or outloud) • Ask students to copy the sentences on a piece of paper. • Have students illustrate their own paper. • Example of a Language Experience activity: • Zoo animals • There are lots of animals at the zoo. • I like the lions. • I like elephants. • Lions have fur. • Elephants are big and have trunks. • Take-home book: Small and Big Animals • Pass out copies of the take-home book. Fold and staple them together. • Read the take home book to the students. • Repeat and ask students to read it with you. • Have students read the take home book silently. • Have students color the pictures and complete the activity on the last page (let students work independently, in pairs, or in groups if they choose)
Components for ESL Lessons • Each lesson should have at least one or more SDAIE strategy listed for each component of the lesson. • Lesson topic or theme: • Grade and English Language proficiency level: • Language objective:Content objective: • ESL Standards • Key vocabulary: • Supplementary materials: • Introduction or motivation strategies for ESL Lessons: • (Build background and connect prior knowledge) • Realia, Graphic organizers: clusters, mapping, charts, tables • Ask questions about what they know, Share personal experiences, KWL , reflective journals or charts • Picture cards, Photos, Literature, Field trip, Games, Poem, Music and songs • Guided Instruction/teaching: • (presentation, teaching sequence) • Independent activity, Practice, Application: • Oral Practice • Reading and Writing • Assessment/evaluation: • Extended Activities:
ESL Lesson Plan Template • Lesson topic or theme: • Grade and English language proficiency level: • Language objectives:Content objective: • Key vocabulary: • Supplementary materials: • Introduction or motivation strategies: • Guided Instruction/teaching: • Independent activity, Practice, Application: • Assessment/evaluation: • Extended Activities
Example of differentiated activities for Vocabulary Development Vocabulary words for clothing: pants, dress, socks, shirt, scarf, hat, skirt, blouse Reminder: Use realia or pictures to demonstrate • Beginning (Preproduction and Early Production, Level 1) • (Teacher points as she says the following): • Everybody wears different clothes. • I (the teacher) am wearing a skirt and blouse. • He is wearing a shirt. He is wearing pants. He is wearing socks. • She is wearing pants and a shirt. • She is wearing a scarf. • She is wearing a dress. • Point to shirt. • Point to the socks. • Point to the pants. • Point to the scarf. • Are you wearing a skirt? • Are you wearing socks? • Is this a hat? • Is this a dress? • Intermediate (Level 2 or speech emergence) • What is she wearing? (point to her blouse) • What is this? (point to socks, pants, skirt, etc.) • What do you wear with pants? • Is this a dress or a blouse? • Advanced (Level 3 or intermediate fluency) • Why are you wearing pants? • What do you like to wear? Why? • Do you prefer to wear pants or a skirt? • Why do you think people wear clothes? • Describe what she is wearing.
Integrating poetry/language arts in the content area • ACROSTIC POEMS Volatile explosion Occasionally erupts Lava over rocks Can we get out of the way? Ash can come out too Not safe Oh my! By Randy Drumm
Acrostic Poems Generates differences sEquence of DNA No two alike chromosomE by Vicente Perez Warm Extreme weather Air pressure Thunder storm Heat wave Evaporate Rain storms by Steve Vang
BIO Poems • I am ________ • I feel _______ • I think ________ • I like ________ • I don’t like ______ • I have _________________ • I ___________ • Example: I am (a lion, the sun, an apple, winter) • I am (the sun) • I feel (hot ) • I think (people like me) • I like (to make the earth warm) • I am (made of hydrogen and helium) • I provide energy • I provide heat • I provide light
WORD What I think it means Definition What it means to me
Frayer Model (for vocabulary development or concept development) Students can develop their understanding of a word or concept by having them analyze a word’s essential and non-essential characteristics. Have students write a definition, list characteristics and write examples and non examples of the concept or word. (Adapted from Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969) definition Examples The third planet in order from the sun with an orbital period of 365 days earth Non-examples characteristics 5th largest planet Has life 71% covered in water Atmosphere: 77% nitrogen 21% oxygen Star Moon No life
QAR (Question – Answer – Relationship) Strategy(Raphael, 1982, 1986) • This strategy is designed to connect reading purpose to text and to the reader’s personal experiences and information sources. QAR can be used to help children understand the thinking demands of questions. • There are four categories of information sources: • Right There – the information is stated explicitly in the text. • Think and Search – The information is still in the text, but must be inferred or concluded from various statements in the text. This involves the interpretive level of thinking (explanation, compare/contrast, cause/effect, list/example). • Author and You – The information is a combination from the text and the students’ background knowledge. This level requires use of the interpretive, applicative, or transactive , level of thinking. • On My Own – this information is primarily from the readers’ background knowledge. Uses the transactive or applicative level of thinking.
What is Electricity? Electricity is a type of energy. Energy is a force that makes things work. We use electricity to do many things. Electricity lights our homes. It helps us search the Internet. It even helps us wash our clothes. Our world would be a very different place without electricity. Electricity is possible because of tiny pieces of matter called atoms. Atoms are so small we cannot see them. Still, we know that they make up everything in the world, including people. To understand how electricity works, we need to understand more about atoms. All atoms are made up of even smaller particles called protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge. Electrons have a negative charge. Neutrons have no charge. Positive and negative charges attract, or move toward each other. Similar charges repel, or move away from each other. Atoms usually have equal positive and negative charges, so they are neutral. (excerpt from: It’s Electric! By Greg Roza. Rosen Classroom Books and Materials. 2003).
After reading the passage, form small • groups and answer the questions together. • Evaluate which QAR category these • questions will represent. • 1. What kind of particles are atoms made up of? • 2. How does electricity affect our lives? • 3. How do you use electricity? • 4. Do you think electricity is important? • 5. What makes our refrigerator, television and computer work? • What is the difference between protons • and neutrons?
Teach the Text Backwards • (CAL and Delta Systems, 1998) • Traditional Sequence of Textbook Reading: • 4. Read the text. • 3. Answer the questions at the end of the chapter. • 2. Discuss the material in class. • Do the applications or expansion activities. • Teaching the Text Backwards • 1. Do the applications or expansion activities. • a. Connect to background knowledge • b. Motivation • 2. Discuss the material in class. • Use visuals, realia • Give main points • 3. Answer the questions at the end of the chapter. • Form study questions from comprehension questions. • 4. Read the text. • 5. Return to study questions and answer. • 6. Do additional application/expansion activities.
Dialogue journals benefit children because: • Students receive an individual reply from their teacher (Hae Joon) • Students experiment with writing in English or the second language in a meaningful context (Elena) • Build communication skills • Build authentic literacy skills • Students choose their own topics
Dialogue journals benefit teachers because: • It provides a weekly developmental record of the child’s writing • Models writing in an authentic context • Helps children make the connection between oral and written language • Learn about the child and his/her interests
ELLs need more guidance and collaborative writing opportunities ELLs need to have an opportunity to feel free to write and express themselves without their writing (spelling, grammar) being corrected Writing process, writer’s workshop, composing process (brainstorming/pre-write, draft, edit, revise, publish) is a separate component of writing instruction. Dialogue journals as a tool for writing instruction for English Language Learners
“Vietnamese was my first language and it was tough trying to learn English. An instrumental person that helped develop my literacy is my sixth grade teacher Mr. Jones. Although I was only his student for a year, we built a friendship that grew outside of the classroom. He became a caring friend and a person I deeply admired. He helped me with my reading and writing abilities through the process of daily journal assignments. We had to write in our journal every day after lunchtime for approximately 10 minutes. Mr. Jones allowed us to free write about anything that we felt a desire for. I would write about what happened outside of school the previous day. Then Mr. Jones would read our entries and comment on them. Usually, he replied with thoughtful feedback and encouragement. This gave me the impression that he really did care about his students because some of my early grade teachers never responded to our writings.
This activity made me feel like I was having my own little conversations with Mr. Jones. I was so comfortable with Mr. Jones that I started to write about many things. I really enjoyed that journal assignment because it allowed me to express my feelings and thoughts without having any restrictions or barriers. I often found myself not having enough time to write everything that I wanted to put on paper. I was also excited to see how Mr. Jones would respond to my entry each day. This assignment improved my literacy skills because I was eager to read and write. For the first time in my childhood, I wanted to read and write more than hanging out with my friends.” • Bobby Nguyen • College student • Long Beach, California September 2005