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Functional and Nutritional: Egg Products Fit the Future of Formulation July 30, 2007 Introduction

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Today’s savvy consumer is seemingly seeking the impossible: an encompassing combination of flavor, convenience and a nutritional profile that goes beyond the traditional listing of vitamins and nutrients. This staple, timeless ingredient, the egg, fulfills its reputation as “incredible.”


Further processed egg products supply excellent functionality, and we will detail new research that shows the functionality benefits of egg products versus various egg replacers in products such as Angel Food Cake, French Vanilla Ice Cream and Pasta. This presentation will show you why egg products in your formulations are “incredible”.


What’s more, exciting new research studies are uncovering more health benefits derived from egg consumption. Find out how egg products help you meet today’s formulation challenges including gluten-free, weight control or providing energy.


And discover the exciting ways that including egg products can help your ‘label health’ in an era when consumers expect the foods they eat to help them reduce dependence on medication for maintaining proper health.



When eggs are beaten, air is incorporated, creating a lighter, more air-filled product.

  • Distinct cellular structure from eggs’leavening action
  • Structural framework holds product
  • together
  • Increased volume for lighter foods
  • Airy texture and smooth mouth-feel


Heating allows thickening and/or coagulation, converting the mixture from a liquid state to a solid or semi-solid state.

  • Can use both yolks and whites
  • Binds products naturally
  • Suspends other ingredients
  • Gelling agents in custards
  • Thickening agents when heated
  • Creates texture
  • Creates structural stability


The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins in egg yolks enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil and water.

  • Creamier texture
  • Smooth mouthfeel
  • Used to fortify whole egg blends to
  • increase emulsifying action
  • No essential differences between
  • dried whole egg and yolk and
  • refrigerated/frozen liquid eggs
coating binding

Coating & Binding

  • With heat, egg coagulation imparts rigidity causing mixtures to gel and ingredients to adhere.
    • Egg white is an excellent
    • binding ingredient
    • No differences are found in binding
    • properties of dried whole egg and
    • yolk and refrigerated/frozen eggs


  • Eggs improve cell structure and enable products to maintain structure during baking, thus reducing moisture loss from baked products.
  • Egg proteins also bind water, making it less available for microorganisms to grow and cause spoilage.
flavor color

Flavor & Color

  • Eggs contain fats which carry and meld flavors in food.
  • Eggs add flavor and enhance other flavors.
  • Egg yolks impart rich color and are used to fortify whole egg blends for a deeper colorin baked products.
functionality research
Functionality Research
  • Food manufacturers have attempted to partially or completely replace eggs with low-cost alternatives.
  • Eggs are essential for desirable volume, texture and color in food products because of unique foaming, solubility, emulsification and coagulation properties.
  • The hypothesis is that eggs require more than a simple 1:1 replacement with an egg alternatives to acquire similar ingredient functionality.
  • The research compared eggs and egg alternatives effectiveness as an ingredient using physical and sensory analysis.
functionality research yellow cake
Functionality Research – Yellow Cake
  • Eggs’ multifunctional properties of foaming, emulsification, coagulation, flavor, and color make them essential in cake production.
  • Texture - was also affected by replacing whole eggs with other ingredients. Some whole egg/replacer blends were similar in springiness on day one but deteriorated after day one.
  • Volume - replacing eggs with a single ingredient did not produce volumes close to that of cakes with whole eggs.
functionality research yellow cake16
Functionality Research – Yellow Cake
  • Color - all substitutes were much whiter than the cake with eggs.
  • Palatability - flavor of whole egg control cakes was significantly greater than of blend variations.
  • Sensory data showed that egg replacement blends did not emulate the sensory attributes of dry whole egg in yellow cake with significant differences in surface stickiness, color, and egg flavor.
functionality research yellow cake17
Functionality Research – Yellow Cake
  • Significance of Results
  • At 100% replacement, no egg substitute used was able to emulate all attributes of whole egg in a yellow cake system.
  • No replacement exactly emulated whole eggs in all aspects of volume, contour, hardness, springiness, and color.
functionality research pasta
Functionality Research – Pasta
  • Eggs are one of the most common ingredients used in pasta/noodles.
  • Egg enhances the formation of a protein network during mixing and kneading, improving
  • the cooking quality.
  • Eggs give a darker and more yellow color to the fresh pasta.
  • Finally, there is a significant increase in the nutritional value of pasta containing egg.
functionality research pasta19
Functionality Research – Pasta
  • Whey protein treatments did not process well enough to sheet the dough.
  • However, whey proteins were successfully incorporated as partial replacements.
  • In the 100% substitute noodle formulations, soy flour exhibited a higher cooking loss.
  • Blended alternatives provided a significantly higher water uptake.
  • Color, stickiness and firmness of cooked noodles were significantly affected by the type substitutes.
functionality research pasta20
Functionality Research – Pasta
  • Significance of Results
  • Whole egg could not be totally replaced with any of the egg substitutes studied in the egg noodles without some loss of quality.
  • Partial replacement of eggs was competitive in regard to the physical and sensory properties evaluated.
functionality research angel food cake
Functionality Research – Angel Food Cake
  • Angel food cake was used as a system to compare and evaluate the functionality of the egg substitutes relative to the egg white protein.
  • Many of the egg alternatives were able to produce a stable foam.
  • Data showed that not all egg alternatives that performed well in the foaming study and could withstand the high temperatures (375F – 176.6 C /30 min) required to bake an angel food cake.
functionality research angel food cake22
Functionality Research – Angel Food Cake
  • Significance of Results
  • Egg protein alternative did not perform as well as the control in the physical attributes evaluation. The cake formulated with the egg alternative exhibited a firmer crust, lower volume and darker color.
  • The egg product control significantly out performed the angel food cake formulated with the egg alternative in all sensory categories evaluated.
  • Consumers indicated that were willing to purchase the egg product control 2 to 1 over the angel food cake formulated with the egg protein alternative.
functionality research french vanilla ice cream
Functionality Research – French Vanilla Ice Cream
  • Many ice cream makers use frozen egg yolks and powdered egg yolks because the egg yolk solids improve the whipping ability of the mix.
  • Investigations have shown that egg yolks improve the rate of whipping more if they are
  • sweetened with 10% sugar before
  • being frozen.
functionality research french vanilla ice cream24
Functionality Research – French Vanilla Ice Cream
  • The use of egg yolk solids produces the following beneficial effects:
    • Firmer ice cream at a given drawing temperature
    • Increased whipping rate
    • Less change in percentage overrun
    • Improved appearance while ice cream is melting
    • Slightly improved texture
    • Increased food value
  • Significance of Results
  • 81% of the panelists would purchase the control compared to 36% for the soy-based egg alternative.
egg product marketability
Egg Product Marketability
  • When it comes to the marketability of egg products, they provide several important features
    • Trans free – virtually free of all trans fats
    • Nutrition content and profiling
    • Clean ingredient label appeals to consumers
    • Superior performance to many alternatives
egg product marketability27
Egg Product Marketability
  • Gluten-Free Products
    • The number of gluten-free products continues to increase. The FDA has published a proposed rule defining “gluten-free”.
  • Canton Dijonnaise Fondue and Dipping Sauce
  • Sports Products
    • As the popularity of protein bars and other high protein foods for athletics increases, eggs (whole, white and yolks in powdered and other forms) can provide high quality protein for many products.
  • be energy bars
egg product marketability28
Egg Product Marketability
  • Indulgent Products
    • Consumers who want to reward themselves often do so with a culinary treat. Eggs provide important textural characteristics in indulgent products such as dressings, ice cream, cakes and other products.
  • Pepperidge Farm Tahiti Coconut Cookies
  • Breakfast Foods
    • Researchstudies show an egg breakfast increases satiety and reduces energy intake. Consumers’ hectic lifestyles have made convenience breakfast foods a “hot” category.
  • Jimmy Dean Canadian Bacon & Cheese Whole Grain Muffin Sandwich
a lifetime of health benefits
A Lifetime of Health Benefits




Egg Protein


Egg Protein


Egg Protein





Egg Protein


Egg Protein

Nutrient Dense


the many positives
The Many Positives
  • High quality protein
  • Vitamins & minerals
  • Carotenoids
  • Choline
  • Satiety, glycemic index
  • Affordability
  • Convenience
nutrient dense eggs
6% food energy

20% protein

53% essential aa

30% riboflavin

12% vitamin A

16% vitamin B12

12% folate

12% vitamin D

16% phosphorous

8% vitamin B6

34% selenium

8% iron

8% zinc

6% vitamin E

Nutrient Dense Eggs

Two Large Eggs = 155calories

nutrition seniors
Nutrition & Seniors
  • Require more protein per kg than younger adults.
  • Eggs least expensive source of high quality protein.
  • Nutrient dense foods important as caloric intake decreases.
  • Eggs are easy to cook, chew, and digest.
choline fetus new born
Choline: Fetus & New Born
  • Choline an essential nutrient
    • AI for men 550 mg/day
    • AI for women 425 mg/day
  • Increased needs during pregnancy & lactation
  • Choline supplements
    • increased new neurons
    • formation of memory centers
    • decreased programmed cell death
    • life-long changes in nerve growth factors and calretinin
age related macular degeneration
Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Normal Vision


Late-Stage AMD

eggs carotenoids
Eggs & Carotenoids
  • Studies indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin help preserve the health of the aging eye against age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
  • Addition of 1.3 egg yolks per day to the diets of 11 middle-aged subjects:
    • increased plasma lutein [38%]
    • increased plasma zeaxanthin [128%]

Handelman et al. 1999. Am J Clin Nutr 70:247-251.

lutein atherosclerosis
Lutein & Atherosclerosis
  • Lutein as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory
  • IMT progression low in those with high plasma lutein
  • High lutein intake decreased atherosclerosis in animal model
  • Lutein effects on inflammatory responses
eggs weight control
Eggs & Weight Control
  • Low calorie, nutrient dense
  • Satiety, glycemic effects
  • High protein diets and loss of fat vs muscle
eggs cholesterol
Eggs & Cholesterol
  • Early research into causes of heart disease was faulty- didn’t separate saturated fat intake from dietary cholesterol intake.
  • Study at Harvard (including ~40,000 men and 80,000 women*) showed no difference in total blood cholesterol levels between eating 1 egg daily and eating <1 egg/wk
  • 2006 British Nutrition Foundation have numerous studies showing that dietary cholesterol can increase serum LDL- cholesterol, but the size of this effect is highly variable between individuals and has no clinically significant impact on CHD risk.
  • * JAMA 1999
eggs satiety
Eggs & Satiety
  • Foods that fill us up can play an important role in weight management.
  • Nutrient-dense ingredients such as eggs are easy to fit into the diet and into formulated foods.
  • New research suggests starting with an egg breakfast can:
    • reduce hunger
    • help reduce caloric intake by more than 400 calories over the next 24 hours
eggs satiety41
Eggs & Satiety
  • Study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, the researchers discovered:
    • Compared to a bagel-based breakfast of equal weight, the egg breakfast induced greater satiety
    • Significantly reduced the participants’ food intake for the rest of the day.
  • The study followed healthy, overweight women who were fed an egg breakfast or a bagel breakfast on alternate days to measure the satiety effects and subsequent energy (caloric) intake over the next 24 hours.
eggs satiety42
Eggs & Satiety
  • The volunteers eating the egg breakfast reported greater levels of satiety:
    • Consuming an average of 164 calories less for lunch
    • And 418 fewer calories than those who ate the bagel breakfast over the course of the next day
  • The higher protein content of the egg breakfast (5 grams more than the bagel breakfast) accounts for some of the sensation of satiety.
eggs satiety43
Eggs & Satiety
  • A spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association called eggs a ‘nutritional powerhouse.’
    • Eggs provide some of the highest quality protein of any food, as well as being one of the few nondairy sources of vitamin D.
    • Eggs are also a good source of the B vitamin riboflavin and contain varying amounts of a number of other nutrients, including vitamins A, B12, D and E and folate, and the mineral iron.
  • Other nutrients in eggs, such as choline, lutein and zeaxanthin, show great promise in other research to help combat various maladies.
egg products are safe products
Egg Products Are Safe Products
  • 76 billion eggs eaten annually…more than 30% are further processed egg products.
  • Egg Product Inspection Act (EPIA) of 1970 requires mandatory continuous inspection of egg product plants. Prior to this act, a voluntary program existed.
  • No reported incidents involving further processed egg products since Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970.
  • Proper handling helps maintain this food safety record.
  • All egg products are all pasteurized.
egg products are safe products46
Egg Products Are Safe Products
  • FDA regulations require qualifying statements when the terms “no hormones or antibiotics” are declared on labels for eggs.
    • Avian Influenza-free
    • No hormones
  • When properly stored, processed egg ingredients will maintain a stable shelf life for months.
customization of egg products
Customization of Egg Products
  • Producers can add additional ingredients to tailor functional properties.
  • Can increase lutein or choline, or tailor levels and types of omega-3 fatty acid content.
  • Nutrients that provide a potential health benefit on the consumer radar screen.
  • All natural functionality
  • Beneficial health applications
  • Clean label
  • Product stability
  • Consistent performance
  • No risk of contamination

Thank You!

  • Questions?
contacts for more information
Contacts for More Information
  • Joanne C. Ivy - President and CEO; (847) 296-7043; overall management of all AEB programs and activities; direct supervision of Egg Nutrition Center, egg product marketing, and administrative programs, information regarding the Board’s policies, industry relations or mission.
  • Elisa Maloberti - Director of Egg Product Marketing; (847) 296-7043; responsible for development and implementation of egg product marketing program; responds to technical food and nutrition questions for food professionals; handles requests for food photography.
  • Glenn Froning, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus - AEB Technical Advisor; (877) 488-6143; is a world-renown expert on everything about eggs. The author of over 200 scientific publications and articles on poultry meat and eggs. He also answers the Board’s EGGSolutions Hotline.
  • Donald J. McNamara, Ph.D. - Executive Director of the Egg Nutrition Center; (202) 833-8850; is responsible for program development and implementation; administration of the American Egg Board Research Grants Program; serve as Executive Editor of Nutrition Close-Up and Nutrition Realities.
  • Marcia Greenblum, M.S., R.D. – Director, Nutrition and Food Safety Education; (202) 833-8850; is responsible for researching topics for development of educational materials on nutrition and food safety.
  • Hilary Shallo Thesmar, Ph.D., R.D. - Director, Food Safety Programs; (202) 833-8850; responsible for all programs related to egg food safety and food safety education, provides technical expertise for the food industry and works with federal and state public health agencies.