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Chinese Americans. Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward Chinese exclusion act of 1882 - 1943 Gradual immigration from 1943 - 1965 Increase in immigration came with the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act Push and pull factors .

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Chinese Americans

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chinese americans
Chinese Americans
  • Chinese immigration was met with mixed sentiments from 1848 onward
    • Chinese exclusion act of 1882 - 1943
    • Gradual immigration from 1943 - 1965
    • Increase in immigration came with the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act
  • Push and pull factors
occupational profile of chinese americans
Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans
  • Early on discriminatory laws were passed making it difficult for Chinese to enter certain occupations
  • Early on gravitated toward service occupations or low paying jobs that whites found undesirable
  • Chinatown and the tourist industry
occupational profile of chinese americans4
Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans
  • Chinatown and the tourist industry
  • Jobs
    • New immigrants find it difficult finding jobs outside of Chinatown
    • Lack of English is another reason for new immigrants seeking work in Chinatown
chinatowns today
Chinatowns Today
  • The economic paradox of Chinatowns
  • The impression of glitter and wealth among hidden economic deprivation and poverty in Chinatown
  • Organizational life
  • Clan or tsu organization and functions (Surname Association)
    • Membership based on clan and family ties
  • Benevolent associations or hui kuan (organization based on kinship ties)
    • Assist in the adjustment to a new country
    • Membership is based on district of origin
  • Hui kuan associations are part of a larger organization, Chinese Six Companies, (Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association)
  • Tongs or secret societies formed on the basis of common interests
conclusions about social organizations
Conclusions about Social Organizations
  • Evolved from Chinese traditions and customs
  • All three types have performed similar functions providing assistance and representing interests to dominant group
  • Inter-conflict between the associations
  • Decline in significance
  • Downplay their problems within the Chinese community with the dominant group
social problems
Social Problems
  • The tourist industry in Chinatown as double edged sword
  • Jobs but at substandard pay
    • Poverty
    • Health
    • Suicide
    • Poor housing
    • Crime
    • Poor working conditions
    • Other
family and religious life
Family and Religious Life
  • In the People’s Republic of China organized religion barely exists
    • Buddhism
    • Christianity
    • Other faiths
  • Variation of acculturation on Chinese family structure
  • Less acculturated the greater the emphasis on extended family and patriarchal authority
  • Effect of immigration on family structure
japanese americans
Japanese Americans
  • Initial Japanese immigrants came around 1885 (Push and pull factors)
  • Came from a very stratified society
  • Most came from the lower class in Japan
  • Initially many found employment in forestry, agriculture and then migrated to cities along the West Coast and established small businesses
generational identity
Generational Identity
  • Issei - first generation immigrants born in Japan
  • Nissei - second generation American born children of the Issei
    • (Kibei)
  • Sansei - third generation
  • Yonsei - fourth generation
early discrimination
Early Discrimination
  • Laws were passed prohibiting Issei from becoming citizens
  • California Alien Land Act of 1913
  • Economic impact on agricultural land owned by Japanese Americans
  • Adjustments to the act led many to transfer ownership to their American born children
  • Many left agriculture and migrated to cities and established small businesses catering to both the Japanese and dominant group
wartime evacuation
Wartime Evacuation
  • Executive order 9066, signed by Roosevelt on February 13, 1942
  • Economic cost to the evacuees was in excess of $400,000,000 or in current dollars $3.7 billion
  • Psychological impact
  • The way out and the loyalty test
wartime evacuation14
Wartime Evacuation
  • Ambiguity of the test questions
  • Japanese Americans demonstrated their loyalty to the United States by participating in the war effort
  • Racism and internment
  • Japanese migration from the camps after the war
economic picture
Economic Picture
  • Upward mobility after WWII
  • Japanese American educational attainment is higher than whites
  • Occupationally have been upwardly mobile but still experience the glass ceiling and wall
  • Higher median family income than whites
family and religious life16
Family and Religious Life
  • Acculturation and change in family structure
  • Conjugal nuclear family structure
  • Neolocal pattern of residence
  • Outgroup marriage is increasing and is approximately 50% among the Yonsei
  • Rising divorce rate
family and religious life17
Family and Religious Life
  • Dual religious customs in Japan
    • Shinto
    • Buddhism
  • United States the emphasis is on belonging to a single religion
  • Impact is changing religious customs over time among Japanese-Americans
remnants of prejudice and discrimination
Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination
  • The decline in overt prejudice
    • Subtle forms still exist
    • Job discrimination
  • Assimilation