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Chapter 8

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  1. Chapter 8 Acquisition and Expenditure Cycle “Show those numbers to the damn auditors and I'll throw you out the $%*@@ window.”----(Buddy Yates, director of WorldCom, Inc. general accounting, to an employee asking for an explanation of a large accounting discrepancy).

  2. Learning Objectives • Identify significant inherent risks in the acquisition and expenditure cycle. • Describe the acquisition and expenditure cycle, including typical source documents and controls. • Give examples of tests of controls over purchases of inventory and services. • Explain the importance of the completeness assertion for the audit of accounts payable liabilities, and list some procedures for a “search for unrecorded liabilities.”

  3. Learning Objectives (cont.) • Discuss audit procedures for other accounts affected by the acquisition and expenditure cycle. • Specify some ways fraud can be found in accounts payable and cash disbursements. • Describe some common errors and frauds in the acquisition and expenditure cycle, and design some audit and investigation procedures for detecting them.

  4. Acquisition and Expenditure Cycle Concerned with transactions involving: • The purchase of merchandise and materials necessary for the continued operations of business and • The subsequent payment for such purchases.

  5. Inherent Risks • Unrecorded liabilities • Noncancelable purchase agreements • Capitalizing expenses

  6. Acquisition and Expenditure Cycle: Typical Activities • Department requesting purchase of item(s) prepares a PURCHASE REQUISITION • Purchase is approved by preparation of a PURCHASE ORDER • After vendor approval, goods are received by company and evidenced by preparing a RECEIVING REPORT • Vendor bills company for goods using a VENDOR'S INVOICE

  7. EXHIBIT8.2 ACQUISITION AND EXPENDITURE CYCLE

  8. Control Procedures • Information processing controls • Compare quantities against receiving report and purchase order • Compare prices against quoted price or catalog listing • Mathematically verify vendor's invoice • Determine when to pay invoice and prepare VOUCHER • Segregation of duties • AUTHORIZATION of the purchase by the purchasing department. • Custody of the inventory item(s) is held by the receiving department and, ultimately, the requesting department. • Transactions are recorded by general accounting (control account) and accounts payable department (subsidiary accounts) • Physical controls • Prepare a receiving report upon initial receipt of inventory • Count and verify inventory quantities upon delivery to the inventory warehouse • Restrict access to inventories by keeping them in a secured location • Performance reviews • Compare purchases data to data from previous years or expected purchases data

  9. Audit Evidence in Management Reports and Data Files • Open purchase orders • Unmatched receiving reports • Unmatched vendor invoices • Accounts payable trial balance • Purchases journal • Inventory reports

  10. EXHIBIT 8.4

  11. The Completeness Assertion • Search for Unrecorded Liabilities • Scan open purchase order file • Examine all UNMATCHED VENDOR STATEMENTS/INVOICES • Examine all UNMATCHED RECEIVING REPORTS occurring near year-end • TRACE from unpaid VOUCHERS in A/P • Confirm A/P with NORMAL SUPPLIERS (even those with zero balances) • Review CASH DISBURSEMENTS occurring after year-end

  12. Purchase Cutoffs • Verify CUT-OFFs for purchases • Examine Receiving Reports and Vendor Sales Invoices occurring around year-end to ensure inventory received is included in the appropriate period.

  13. Other Accounts in Cycle • Accrued Expenses • Prepaid Expenses • Expenses • Inventory • Property Plant and Equipment

  14. Accrued Payables • Major differences between ACCRUED PAYABLES and ACCOUNTS PAYABLE • Examples include INTEREST, PROPERTY TAXES, WAGES, and INCOME TAXES PAYABLE • These payables are not normally INVOICED or EVIDENCED by the RECEIPT OF GOODS • These differences may make it more difficult to detect UNRECORDED ACCRUALS

  15. Auditing Accrued Payables and Prepaid Expenses • Agree balances to PRIOR YEAR WORKPAPERS • Verify PAYMENTS • Examine UNDERLYING AGREEMENTS • RECALCULATE amounts • Search for UNRECORDED ACCRUALS • Review CASH DISBURSEMENTS at year-end • Look for expected accruals at other stages of the audit (BONDS, NOTES, employees paid on 15th, etc.) • ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

  16. Auditing Property, Plant, and Equipment • GENERAL APPROACH • Use TEST OF TRANSACTION approach • Small number of transactions • Relatively high dollar transactions • Authorization of Transactions (Board of Directors) takes on added importance. • Less concern for ACCESS to ASSETS • More concerned with UNRECORDED DISPOSALS

  17. Auditing Property, Plant, and Equipment • Agree balances to prior year documentation • PURCHASES OF PPE • VOUCH to INVOICE or COST RECORDS • Inspect TITLE • VOUCH to BOARD MINUTES • EXPENDITURES SUBSEQUENT TO ACQUISITION • VOUCH to INVOICE and WORK DESCRIPTIONS • Consider propriety of classification (EXPENSE or CAPITALIZE)

  18. Auditing Property, Plant, and Equipment • DISPOSAL OF PPE • VOUCH from PPE to BOD MINUTES (AUTHORIZATION) • Vouch to cash receipts journal and validated deposit slip • Recalculate gain/loss • TRACE from BD MINUTES to PPE for disposals (COMPLETENESS) • Look for unrecorded disposals • Agree balances to PRIOR YEAR WORKPAPERS • Examine insurance policies, property tax records, etc. • PHYSICALLY INSPECT or CONFIRM fixed assets • Both existing and newly-acquired items • Confirm assets LEASED to others under capital leases

  19. Auditing Property, Plant, and Equipment • DEPRECIATION EXPENSE • Recalculate using USEFUL LIFE, SALVAGE VALUE, COST, and METHOD (VA) • Evaluate REASONABLENESS of USEFUL LIFE, SALVAGE VALUE, etc. • Is depreciation consistent with COMPANY POLICY (half year conventions)? • LEASE AGREEMENTS • Verify proper treatment (Capitalized or Operating) • Ensure disclosure in footnotes is appropriate

  20. Exhibit 8.6

  21. Auditing Expense Accounts • Analytical procedures (e.g. sales commissions) • Agree to related balance sheet account (depreciation) • Substantive tests of transactions (e.g. payroll) • Vouch detail (e.g. legal expense)

  22. Photocopies of invoices Invoices in numerical order Round numbers Slightly below threshold P.O. Boxes No listed phone # Vendor and Employee addresses the same Multiple vendors at same location Fraud Signs