The Nature and Types of Advertising • Advertising • Paid nonpersonal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media • Promotes goods, services, ideas, images, issues, people, and anything else that advertisers want to publicize or foster
General Steps in Developing andImplementing an Advertising Campaign FIGURE 18.1
Advertising Pyramid Action Desire Conviction Comprehension Awareness Slide 48
Institutional Ads • Ads that promote a companies overall philosophy, or portray a positive image for the firm without really attempting to focus on any specific product or service. • Church Family commercials
Comparative Ads • Are legal in the U.S., but proper substantiation required for any claims made. • Some countries prohibit comparative ads.
Copy Platform • Given to the ad agency creative team • Provides: • Objective Statement (what are we trying to accomplish and with which target?) • Positioning Statement • Supporting evidence (back up the positioning) • Tone Statement – personality of the campaign (emotional? humorous? rationale? informational?)
A Big Idea More info • Conveys the positioning • Appeals to the target • Delivers on the objective • Breaks through (gets attention) • Is memorable • Has legs • Can be used in multiple mediums • Can be executed in several different versions of the same idea.
Big Idea • Should be 3 or 4 sentence • Should explain the content of the promotions so I would have an idea what individual ads would look like • If there is a “clever twist” it should be explained • Can include a slogan or tag line
Create awareness Stimulate demand Encourage product trial Identify prospects Retain loyal customers Facilitate reseller support Combat competitive promotional efforts Reduce sale fluctuations Objectives
Reach and Frequency • Reach: % of target audience reached at least once by your media plan • Frequency: average # of times a target audience member sees the ad in a four-week period.
Reach vs. Frequency • Often, you can’t afford to hit both real heavy. • Maximize reach if you have a cutting edge, breakthrough campaign, or are simply trying to maintain loyalty. • set a minimum frequency (3x for established brand, 5x for new brand) and then maximize reach • Maximize frequency if you have an action objective, a complex message, or heavy competitive advertising levels. • Set a minimum reach – say 50%, and then maximize frequency
Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65 • Focus on two months of seasonal increase in bread usage Sept/Oct 1993 • Nationally , bought combination of daytime and early morning • Reach 69%, Frequency 9.8x per month • Locally in key markets, added early news and prime access • Reach 80%, Frequency 4.0x per month
Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65 • Today Show 4.4 rating points • Good Morning America 4.8 rating points • CBS This Morning 3.7 rating points • Price is Right 1 7.3 rating points • Price is Right 2 9.3 rating points • Young and Restless 11.1 rating points • As the World Turns 7.2 rating points • Bold and Beautiful 7.9 rating points
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Determining the Advertising Appropriation
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Developing the Media Plan • Specifies media vehicles (e.g., magazines, radio, and television stations, and newspapers) and the schedule for running the advertisements • Plan objectives focus on achieving the reach and frequency that the budget will allow. • Reach: the percentage of consumers in a target market exposed to an advertisement in a specified period • Frequency: the number of times targeted consumers are exposed to an advertisement in a specified period Example
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Developing the Media Plan (cont’d) • Cost comparison indicator • A means of comparing the cost of vehicles in a specific medium in relation to the number of people reached • The indicator is stated as the cost for exposing one thousand people (CPM) to an advertisement in a medium. • Media scheduling types • Continuous • Flighting • Pulsing
Media Alternatives • Newspapers • Good for mass coverage of a local market • Often not good for highly targeted audiences • Purchased in standard ad units (# columns x inches) • Television • mass or targeted coverage (thanks to cable) • sight, sound and motion makes it best for shaping attitudes • very expensive in most markets; also high production costs • Prime time best for mass audiences; may be wasteful for targeted audiences. Daytime, early fringe late fringe or local news may be best
Television DaypartsMountain Time Zone • Early Morning – local and network, before 8 am • Daytime – 8 to 3pm - network • Early Fringe – local, before local news • Early News – local and network • Prime access – local, hour before prime • Prime Time – 7 to 10 pm network • Late News – local • Late fringe – network, after local news
Media Alternatives • Direct Mail • targeted, geo-demographic coverage • high costs, unreliable mailing lists • Radio • psychographic targeting via station formats • fast, cheap production • highly fragmented audience
Radio Daypartsmay vary by station • Morning Drive 6 to 10 • Daytime 10 to 3 • Afternoon drive 3 to 7 • Nighttime 7 to midnight • All night midnight to 6
Media Alternatives • Magazines • product-related and psychographic targeting • quality image • long lead time, poor frequency • Outdoor • mass coverage, great frequency • simple, short message • Interactive • two-way communication! But many technical problems still exist.
Product Features, Uses, and Benefits Characteristics of the Form and Target Audience Content of Advertising Advertising Campaign Message Objectives and Platform Choice of Media Developing an Advertising Campaign • Creating the Advertising Message
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d) • Copy: the verbal portion of advertisements • Includes headlines, subheadlines, body copy, and signature • Copy guidelines • Identify a specific desire or problem • Recommend the product as the best way to satisfy the desire or solve the problem • State product benefits • Substantiate advertising claims • Ask the buyer to take action Southwest
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Creating the Advertising Message Storyboard • A mockup combining copy and visual material to show the sequence of major scenes in a commercial Plugged“Hum” Leap“Yeah” Upset“Oops” Unplugged“Buzz”
Developing an Advertising Campaign • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d) • Artwork • An ad’s illustration and layout • Illustrations • Photos, drawings, graphs, charts, and tables used to spark audience interest • Layout • The physical arrangement of an ad’s illustration and copy
Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d) • Executing the Campaign • Planning and coordination • Implementation • Detailed scheduling of campaign phases • Evaluation and corrective action as necessary to make the campaign more effective
5. Action 4. Desire 3. Credibility 2. Interest 1. Attention Creative (copywriter’s)Pyramid More info Slide 68
Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d) • Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness
Public Relations • Public Relations • Communications efforts used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and its stakeholders • Focuses on enhancing the image of the total organization • Public Relations Tools • Written materials • Brochures • Newsletters • Company magazines • News releases • Annual reports • Corporate identity materials • Speeches • Sponsored events
Public Relations (cont’d) • Publicity: a news story type of communication transmitted through a mass medium at no charge • News release MicrosoftCapsoftWalmart • A short piece of copy publicizing an event or a product • Feature article • A manuscript of up to 3,000 words prepared for a specific publication • Captioned photograph LDS Church • A photo with a brief description of its contents • Press conference • A meeting used to announce major news events