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advertising. B341. The Nature and Types of Advertising. Advertising Paid nonpersonal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media

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the nature and types of advertising
The Nature and Types of Advertising
  • Advertising
    • Paid nonpersonal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media
    • Promotes goods, services, ideas, images, issues, people, and anything else that advertisers want to publicize or foster
advertising pyramid
Advertising Pyramid






Slide 48

institutional ads
Institutional Ads
  • Ads that promote a companies overall philosophy, or portray a positive image for the firm without really attempting to focus on any specific product or service.
    • Church Family commercials
comparative ads
Comparative Ads
  • Are legal in the U.S., but proper substantiation required for any claims made.
  • Some countries prohibit comparative ads.
copy platform
Copy Platform
  • Given to the ad agency creative team
  • Provides:
    • Objective Statement (what are we trying to accomplish and with which target?)
    • Positioning Statement
    • Supporting evidence (back up the positioning)
    • Tone Statement – personality of the campaign (emotional? humorous? rationale? informational?)
a big idea
A Big Idea

More info

  • Conveys the positioning
  • Appeals to the target
  • Delivers on the objective
  • Breaks through (gets attention)
  • Is memorable
  • Has legs
    • Can be used in multiple mediums
    • Can be executed in several different versions of the same idea.
big idea
Big Idea
  • Should be 3 or 4 sentence
  • Should explain the content of the promotions so I would have an idea what individual ads would look like
  • If there is a “clever twist” it should be explained
  • Can include a slogan or tag line
Create awareness

Stimulate demand

Encourage product trial

Identify prospects

Retain loyal customers

Facilitate reseller support

Combat competitive promotional efforts

Reduce sale fluctuations

reach and frequency
Reach and Frequency
  • Reach: % of target audience reached at least once by your media plan
  • Frequency: average # of times a target audience member sees the ad in a four-week period.
reach vs frequency
Reach vs. Frequency
  • Often, you can’t afford to hit both real heavy.
  • Maximize reach if you have a cutting edge, breakthrough campaign, or are simply trying to maintain loyalty.
    • set a minimum frequency (3x for established brand, 5x for new brand) and then maximize reach
  • Maximize frequency if you have an action objective, a complex message, or heavy competitive advertising levels.
    • Set a minimum reach – say 50%, and then maximize frequency
roman meal example target women 50 65
Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65
  • Focus on two months of seasonal increase in bread usage Sept/Oct 1993
  • Nationally , bought combination of daytime and early morning
    • Reach 69%, Frequency 9.8x per month
  • Locally in key markets, added early news and prime access
    • Reach 80%, Frequency 4.0x per month
roman meal example target women 50 6515
Roman Meal ExampleTarget Women 50-65
  • Today Show 4.4 rating points
  • Good Morning America 4.8 rating points
  • CBS This Morning 3.7 rating points
  • Price is Right 1 7.3 rating points
  • Price is Right 2 9.3 rating points
  • Young and Restless 11.1 rating points
  • As the World Turns 7.2 rating points
  • Bold and Beautiful 7.9 rating points
developing an advertising campaign
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Determining the Advertising Appropriation
developing an advertising campaign18
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Developing the Media Plan
    • Specifies media vehicles (e.g., magazines, radio, and television stations, and newspapers) and the schedule for running the advertisements
    • Plan objectives focus on achieving the reach and frequency that the budget will allow.
      • Reach: the percentage of consumers in a target market exposed to an advertisement in a specified period
      • Frequency: the number of times targeted consumers are exposed to an advertisement in a specified period


developing an advertising campaign19
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Developing the Media Plan (cont’d)
    • Cost comparison indicator
      • A means of comparing the cost of vehicles in a specific medium in relation to the number of people reached
      • The indicator is stated as the cost for exposing one thousand people (CPM) to an advertisement in a medium.
    • Media scheduling types
      • Continuous
      • Flighting
      • Pulsing
media alternatives
Media Alternatives
  • Newspapers
    • Good for mass coverage of a local market
    • Often not good for highly targeted audiences
    • Purchased in standard ad units (# columns x inches)
  • Television
    • mass or targeted coverage (thanks to cable)
    • sight, sound and motion makes it best for shaping attitudes
    • very expensive in most markets; also high production costs
    • Prime time best for mass audiences; may be wasteful for targeted audiences. Daytime, early fringe late fringe or local news may be best
television dayparts mountain time zone
Television DaypartsMountain Time Zone
  • Early Morning – local and network, before 8 am
  • Daytime – 8 to 3pm - network
  • Early Fringe – local, before local news
  • Early News – local and network
  • Prime access – local, hour before prime
  • Prime Time – 7 to 10 pm network
  • Late News – local
  • Late fringe – network, after local news
media alternatives23
Media Alternatives
  • Direct Mail
    • targeted, geo-demographic coverage
    • high costs, unreliable mailing lists
  • Radio
    • psychographic targeting via station formats
    • fast, cheap production
    • highly fragmented audience
radio dayparts may vary by station
Radio Daypartsmay vary by station
  • Morning Drive 6 to 10
  • Daytime 10 to 3
  • Afternoon drive 3 to 7
  • Nighttime 7 to midnight
  • All night midnight to 6
media alternatives25
Media Alternatives
  • Magazines
    • product-related and psychographic targeting
    • quality image
    • long lead time, poor frequency
  • Outdoor
    • mass coverage, great frequency
    • simple, short message
  • Interactive
    • two-way communication! But many technical problems still exist.
developing an advertising campaign29

Product Features, Uses,

and Benefits

Characteristics of the

Form and

Target Audience

Content of


Advertising Campaign


Objectives and Platform

Choice of Media

Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Creating the Advertising Message
developing an advertising campaign30
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d)
    • Copy: the verbal portion of advertisements
      • Includes headlines, subheadlines, body copy, and signature
    • Copy guidelines
      • Identify a specific desire or problem
      • Recommend the product as the best way to satisfy the desire or solve the problem
      • State product benefits
      • Substantiate advertising claims
      • Ask the buyer to take action


developing an advertising campaign31
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Creating the Advertising Message Storyboard
      • A mockup combining copy and visual material to show the sequence of major scenes in a commercial





developing an advertising campaign32
Developing an Advertising Campaign
  • Creating the Advertising Message (cont’d)
    • Artwork
      • An ad’s illustration and layout
    • Illustrations
      • Photos, drawings, graphs, charts, and tables used to spark audience interest
    • Layout
      • The physical arrangement of an ad’s illustration and copy
developing an advertising campaign cont d
Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d)
  • Executing the Campaign
    • Planning and coordination
    • Implementation
      • Detailed scheduling of campaign phases
      • Evaluation and corrective action as necessary to make the campaign more effective
creative copywriter s pyramid

5. Action

4. Desire

3. Credibility

2. Interest

1. Attention

Creative (copywriter’s)Pyramid

More info

Slide 68

developing an advertising campaign cont d35
Developing an Advertising Campaign (cont’d)
  • Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness
public relations
Public Relations
  • Public Relations
    • Communications efforts used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and its stakeholders
    • Focuses on enhancing the image of the total organization
  • Public Relations Tools
    • Written materials
      • Brochures • Newsletters • Company magazines
      • News releases • Annual reports
      • Corporate identity materials • Speeches
      • Sponsored events
public relations cont d
Public Relations (cont’d)
  • Publicity: a news story type of communication transmitted through a mass medium at no charge
    • News release MicrosoftCapsoftWalmart
      • A short piece of copy publicizing an event or a product
    • Feature article
      • A manuscript of up to 3,000 words prepared for a specific publication
    • Captioned photograph LDS Church
      • A photo with a brief description of its contents
    • Press conference
      • A meeting used to announce major news events