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Sport Injuries In the Martial Arts Treatment and Prevention Ihsan Antoine Azzam , MD, MPH June 24, 2005 Today's Topics What are Martial Arts (Sports) Injuries? What is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Injuries?

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Sport InjuriesIn the Martial ArtsTreatment and Prevention

Ihsan Antoine Azzam , MD, MPH June 24, 2005


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Today's Topics

  • What are Martial Arts (Sports) Injuries?

  • What is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Injuries?

  • What Should We Do in Case of Injury?

  • How are These Injuries Treated?

  • Individuals/Groups at High Risk

  • How Can We Prevent These Injuries?

  • Recent Advances


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Statistical Facts

  • Most sports injuries can be treated

    effectively

  • Most people who suffer injuries can return to a satisfying level of physical activity

    after an injury

  • Many sports injuries can be prevented if people take the proper precautions


Injuries that most commonly occur during sports or exercise l.jpg
“Injuries that most commonly occur during sports or exercise.”

Sports Injuries - Definition

What Are Sports Injuries?

Could be due to:

  • Unintentional accidents

  • Poor training practices

  • Improper equipment

  • Lack of conditioning

  • Insufficient or inadequate warm-up and stretching

  • Could Involve:

  • Muscles

  • Bones

  • Associated tissues:

    • Ligaments

    • Tendons

    • Cartilage

  • Any part of the body


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Sprains and Strains exercise.”

  • Joint Sprain:Stretch or tear of a ligament (the band of tough soft tissues that connects bones to bones)

  • Caused by trauma

  • Most vulnerable to sprains are:

  • Ankles

  • Knees

  • Wrists Signs include:

  • Tenderness or pain

  • Bruising

  • Inflammation

  • Swelling

  • inability to move a limb or joint

  • joint looseness, laxity, or instability

  • Joint Strain:twist, pull, or tear of a muscle or tendon(the band of tough soft tissue that connects muscles to bones)

  • Could be None-contact injury

  • May result from over-stretching or

    over-contraction

  • Most vulnerable to sprains are:

  • Ankles

  • Knees

  • Wrists

  • Signs include:

  • Pain

  • Muscle Spasm

  • Loss of Muscle Strength

  • Swelling


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Knee Injuries exercise.”

  • knee is the most commonly injured joint

  • Each year > 5.5 million Individuals visit orthopedic clinics for knee problems.

  • Ranges from mild to severe

  • Functionally limiting

  • Pain or tenderness


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Causes of Knee Injuries exercise.”

  • Running too Hard too Much

  • Training without Warm- up

  • Blow, Kick or Punch

  • Twist

  • Improper Landing


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Compartment Syndrome exercise.”

Ongoing overuse (chronic)or one-timetraumatic

injury (acute compartment syndrome),such as:

  • Fractured bone

  • Hard blow to the thigh (or repeated hard blows)

    Occurswhen muscles become swollen, and filled

    the compartment to capacity, causing damage to the

    muscles and interference with:

  • Nerves

  • Blood vessels.


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Achilles Tendon Injuries exercise.”

  • Stretch, tear, or irritation

  • Tendonitis

  • degenerative caused by

    aging*or overuse

  • Rupture.

Lateral View of the Ankle

* Healthy and active lifestyle may delay soft tissues degeneration


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Shin Splints exercise.”

Definition: Leg pain along the tibia associated with exercise

  • Running and Overtraining

  • Jumping on hard surfaces

  • Running in shoes that don't have enough support

  • Overuse or incorrect use of the lower leg

  • Improper stretching, warm-up, or exercise technique

  • Flat (over-pronated) feet



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Common Types of Sports Injuries exercise.”

  • Muscle sprains and strains

  • Tears of the ligaments that hold joints together

  • Tears of the tendons that support joints and

    allow them to move

  • Dislocated joints

  • Fractured bones, including vertebrae

  • Hernias


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Fractures exercise.”

Broken bones

  • Quick, Acute or one-time injury

  • Repeated stress

  • Simple and Clean break

  • Compound

  • Most acute fractures are emergencies

  • Symptoms:

    • Pain

    • Tenderness

    • Swelling

Broken Arm

Humerus Fracture


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Dislocations exercise.”

  • When bones that form a joint become separated

  • Due to excessive force, stretching or

    falling

  • Emergency situation



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Acute Versus Chronic Injuries exercise.”

  • Signs of an acute injury include

  • the following:

  • Sudden, severe pain

  • Swelling

  • Inability to place weight on a lower limb

  • Extreme tenderness in an upper limb

  • Inability to move a joint through its full range of motion

  • Extreme limb weakness

  • Visible dislocation or break of a bone

Acute Injuries such

as:

  • sprained ankle,

  • strained back

  • fractured hand

    Chronic Injuries

    Result from Overuse

What's the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Injuries?


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STOP IMMEDIATELY exercise.”

When Injury Occurs

  • Severe pain, swelling,or numbness

  • Can't tolerate any weight on that area

  • Pain or dull ache of an old injury that is accompanied by increased:

    • swelling

    • joint abnormality

    • instability.

When to Seek Medical Attention?

What Should We Do in Case of an Injury?


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Managing Injuries at Home exercise.”

Follow “RICE” for 48 hours

  • Rest

  • Ice (for maximum 48 hours, no more than 10 times/day 20-30

    minutes each)

  • Compression (should be performed by skilled individuals

    only)

  • Elevation (slightly above the level of heart)

    If pain or other symptoms worsen

    check with your healthcare provider

How Are Sport Injuries Treated?


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How Are Sport Injuries Treated? exercise.”

  • Start with “RICE”

  • Immediate Immobilization

  • Surgery

  • None Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Rehabilitation:

    • Gradual Exercise

    • Early Mobilization

    • Avoid Pain

    • Avoid Re-injury

  • Other Therapies include:

    • Electrostimulation (reduces pain, swelling, functionality, and produce passive muscle contraction - not recommended in the first 72 hours)

    • Cryotherapy

    • Thermotherapy (enhances and speeds up the healing process not recommended in the first 72 hours)

    • Ultrasound (not recommended in the first 72 hours)

    • Massage (not recommended in the first 72 hours)


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    High Risk Individuals (Vulnerable Groups) exercise.”

    • Children and Adolescents

      • Bones, Muscles Tendons and Ligaments still Growing

      • Neck, Spinal Cord and Growth Plates (contact Sports)

  • Middle Aged Martial Artists

    • Aging (physical activity and some medical and food supplements*

      may delay the progress of arthritis)

    • Moving too Quickly to Active Lifestyle

  • Women (High Prevalence of Osteoporosis among inactive women who are not on Calcium supplements)

    • Conditioning Levels

    • Structural Differences

    • Hormonal Levels

  • Individuals and Groups at High Risk for Sport Injuries

    * NSADs, Glucosamine and Chondroitin may play a role in slowing the progress of arthritis


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    Preventing (Sports) Martial Arts Injuries exercise.”

    • Do Warm-up Exercises.

    • Don't Overdo

    • Accept Your Body Limit

    • Modify Activities as Needed

    • Increase the Emphasis on Conditioning

    • Maintain “Normal” Body Weight (some cushion could be helpful)

    • Avoid Twisting Knees by keeping feet as flat as possible during stretches.

    • When Jumping, Land with your knees bent

    • Wear Protective Gear

    • Use Soft Exercise Surface

    • Increase Your Exercise Level Gradually

    • Avoid Excessive Activities

    • Strive for A Total Body Workout (Cardio, Strength and Flexibility)

    How Can We Prevent Sport Injuries?


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    Hernias exercise.”

    • Hernias of the abdominal wall must be considered in patients who present with abdominal or groin pain

    • Inguinal hernia pain can be confused with pain due to chronic muscular-skeletal conditions encountered in a variety of sporting activities, especially Martial Arts and Weight Lifting

    • Herniated (prolapsed) inter- vertebral discs is extremely common among over-achiever martial artists


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    Recent Advances exercise.”

    • Arthroscopy

      • Tiny Incisions (less trauma, swelling and scaring)

      • Diagnostic Tool

      • Treatment Tool (torn meniscus or ligament)

      • Better Healing

  • Tissue Engineering

    • Cartilage Transplanting

    • Improve Healing

  • Targeted Pain Relief

    • Patches

  • What Are Some Recent Advances in Treating Sports Injuries?


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    Thank you exercise.”

    Questions

    I/Azzam - 2004