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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. Made up of glands release hormones into the bloodstream Hormones travel throughout the body and relay information Works with nervous system to control body Coordinated by the hypothalamus receives messages from internal organs

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Made up of glands

    • release hormones into the bloodstream
      • Hormones travel throughout the body and relay information
  • Works with nervous system to control body
    • Coordinated by the hypothalamus
      • receives messages from internal organs
      • Stimulates pituitary gland when a change in homeostasis occurs
parts of the endocrine system
Parts of the endocrine system

1. Pituitary gland – “master” endocrine gland

2. Hypothalamus

3. Pineal gland

4. Thyroid gland

5. Parathyroid gland

6. Adrenal gland

7. Pancreas

8. Ovaries or Testes

check your understanding
Check your understanding…
  • Which part of your brain meshes your endocrine and nervous systems together?
  • Without looking at your notes, list as many parts of the endocrine system as you can
pituitary gland
Pituitary gland
  • Controls all the other glands
  • Secretes hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-diuretic hormone, growth hormone, and more)
  • Secretes hormones
  • controls pituitary gland
thyroid gland
Thyroid gland
  • Regulates metabolism and growth
  • Main hormone is thyroxine – contains iodine (think iodized salt)
    • Regulates Energy Use, Food Intake
pineal gland
Pineal gland
  • In brain – “third eye”
  • Sensitive to light
  • Releases melatonin to make you sleepy
thyroid gland1
Thyroid gland
  • Hypothyroidism: low thyroxin
    • Lower energy, weight gain
thyroid gland2
Thyroid gland
  • Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland (low iodine)
parathyroid gland
Parathyroid Gland

Controls calcium levels in blood and bones

Secretes Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

adrenal gland
Adrenal Gland
  • Produces adrenalin (epinephrine) and noradrenalin (norepinephrine)

Fight-or-flight response

  • Increased…
    • heart rate and blood pressure
    • respiration rate
    • muscle efficiency
    • blood sugar levels
  • Also releases cortisol

which wakes you up


Controls blood sugar levels - Insulin

Also acts as a gland of the digestive system secreting digestive enzymes

reproductive glands
Reproductive glands
  • Gonads: ovaries and testes
  • Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone
  • Sex characteristics
    • Breasts
    • Widening of hips
    • Soft skin
    • Pubic/underarm hair
reproductive glands1
Reproductive glands
  • Testes produce androgens, including testosterone
  • Sex characteristics
    • facial, leg and body hair
    • Thicker skin
    • Large muscle mass
    • Growth of Larynx (deep voice)
check your understanding1
Check your understanding…
  • Which gland is your “master endocrine gland”?
  • Which glands sit on top of your kidneys and make adrenaline?
  • Which gland / hormone makes you get fatter as you age?
  • What hormones are secreted by YOUR gonads?
  • Which gland controls your blood sugar levels, and with what hormone?
negative feedback
Negative feedback
  • An increase in something inhibits the process leading to the increase
  • Example: your grades
    • Your grades suck
    • Parents get on your case
    • You try harder at school
    • Your grades go up
    • Parents stop harping on you
    • You stop trying, grades go back down
negative feedback loop water regulation
Negative feedback loopwater regulation
  • You work out and get thirsty
  • Hypothalamus senses you need water
  • Hypothalamus tells pituitary gland to release anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Causes body to conserve water
  • No longer thirsty (no more ADH)
  • What does a diuretic do?
negative feedback loop blood glucose
Negative feedback loopblood glucose
  • When you eat, blood glucose levels go up
    • Pancreas senses this and releases insulin
    • Insulin tells cells to take in glucose – so blood glucose levels drop
negative feedback loop blood glucose1
Negative feedback loopblood glucose
  • When blood glucose drops…
    • Pancreas senses this and releases glucagon
    • Glucagontells liver to release glycogen (glucose)—so blood glucose levels rise
    • If you’re out of glycogen, hypothalamus stimulates your stomach and makes it growl
check your understanding2
Check your understanding…

In your notebook, work with your partner to create your own example of a negative feedback loop.

It does not have to be biological!

endocrine disease
endocrine disease

Two types

Type I – juvenile onset

Type II – adult-onset

type i diabetes juvenile
Type I diabetes: “juvenile”
  • Pancreas doesn’t make insulin
  • Therefore cells can’t take in glucose
  • Glucose stays in blood—causes high blood sugar
  • Glucose appears in urine (not normally there)
  • Treatment
    • strict diet
    • insulin injections
type ii diabetes adult onset
Type II diabetes: adult-onset
  • You eat WAY TOO MUCH sugar
  • Cells get overloaded with sugar
  • Cells shut down some insulin receptors, or receptors don’t work properly
  • Therefore cells no longer get enough glucose
  • Treatment - Diet