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MODULE D: ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT AND PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION. Role of the public sector and conditions for private sector involvement in ISP? How can private sector involvement be achieved? Improved management in public sector enterprises

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module d enterprise management and private sector participation

MODULE D: ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT AND PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION

Role of the public sector and conditions for private sector involvement in ISP?

How can private sector involvement be achieved?

Improved management in public sector enterprises

What does better enterprise management mean for different levels of government?

session 1 role of the public sector and conditions for private sector involvement in isp
Session-1: Role of the public sector and conditions for private sector involvement in ISP?
  • Define the role of the state
  • Give reasons for private sector development
  • Suggest different ways of involving the private sector
  • Give examples and an exercise
the role of the public sector
The role of the public sector
  • Establishing a foundation of law
  • Maintaining a non distortionary policy environment, including macroeconomic stability
  • Investing in basic social services and infrastructure
  • Protecting the vulnerable
  • Protecting the environment
reasons for private sector involvement
Reasons for private sector involvement
  • Limited efficiency of govern. organization
  • Financial reasons: loss-making leading to government budget deficits
  • Lack of quality or products are too expensive
  • Lack of regular supply
  • Political interference in public sector enterp.
conditions for successful private sector involvement in isp
Conditions for successful private sector involvement in ISP
  • National level:enabling policy environment
  • meso levelsectorial policies encouraging private sector involvement
  • micro leveltransparent and accountable firm
conditions for project finance
Conditions for project finance
  • A supportive policy environment
  • A sound and stable economic base
  • A business environment in which:

- business dealings are transparent

- contracts are respected

- a framework exists for resolving conflicts

  • A legal and judicial framework conducive to private contractual activity
barriers to private sector involvement in isp
Barriers to private sector involvement in ISP
  • Lack of policy and regulatory framework
  • Weak domestic capital markets
  • High transaction and bidding costs
example 1 public water supply
Example 1 Public water supply
  • Indicators of good public service provision
  • Indicators of government failure
  • Factors explaining failure of water utilities
  • Factors explaining the success of water companies
  • What is the situation in your country?
case 1 innovation promotion for sme is private sector developm
Case 1 Innovation promotion for SME is private sector developm.
  • Innovation is crucial to keep competitive edge
  • Innovation requires technology transfer and building local technological capability
  • Need for macro policies
  • Activities at the meso level
  • Enterprise level initiatives
exercise 1 reasons for poor electricity supply in your country
Exercise 1 Reasons for poor electricity supply in your country
  • What are the reasons for rationing or irregular supply?
  • What can be said about the price?
  • How much subsidies are provided?
  • What could be done to solve the situation?
  • Why/how could private sector involvement contribute to the solution?
  • Under what conditions and in what form?
summary session 1
Summary Session-1
  • We described core roles of the public sector
  • Discussed an example of public water supply with private sector support
  • Considered basic conditions for private sector involvement
  • Examined conditions for project finance
  • Looked at certain barriers to private sector involvement
  • Made a case for supporting innovation of SME
  • Examined possible reasons poor electricity supply
session 2 how can private sector participation in isp be achieved
Session-2: How can private sector participation in ISP be achieved?
  • Private sector participation and privatization
  • Ways to involve the private sector
  • Exercise: advantages/disadvantages privatization
ways to involve the private sector in isp
Ways to involve the private sectorin ISP
  • Outsourcing or subcontracting (maintenance)
  • Lease and operate contracts (BOT)
  • Provide a concession (water supply)
  • Private sector finance (housing & infrastructure)
ways to involve private sector cont
Ways to involve private sector (cont.)
  • Service contracts (solid waste collection)
  • A management contract (to run a bus company)
  • Socio-economic development funds (employment)
  • A PPP for urban renovation (Agetip)
  • A PPcP for waste collection (waste collection)
  • Privatization (telecommunication company)
lessons from experiences with socio economic development funds
Lessons from experiences with socio-economic development funds
  • Private sector involvement has substantial direct and indirect employment effects;
  • To reach labour intensive enterprises jobs need to be cut up in smaller portions
  • Small projects should also be welcomed
  • Appraisal of projects need to be transparent
  • Entrepreneurs need money after finishing
  • Tendering procedures have to be simplified
different financial instruments for private sector involvement in isp
Different financial instruments for private sector involvement in ISP
  • Loans
  • Direct foreign investments
  • Buying bonds
  • Portfolio investment
  • Project finance
strong points of the public sector and the private sector in ppps
Public sector

Idealistic striving for general good

Pay attention to legal security & lawfulness

Used to weighing of interests

Political responsibility

Private sector

Provides continuity and profitability

Willing to take challenges

Efficient

Large degree of freedom in organizational structure

Strong points of the public sector and the private sector in PPPs
an example of public services through a ppcpartnership
An example of public services through a PPcPartnership
  • An agreement between the municipality and a local non-governmental organization
  • Young people collect waste in certain neighborhoods for a fee
  • They use donkey carts as an appropriate technology for this purpose
  • This is called a Public-Private-Community partnership PPcP and exists in Bamako Mali
how to choose between the different options
How to choose between the different options
  • Past experience with private sector
  • Nature of project or activity
  • Seriousness of the issue
  • Legal framework
  • Degree of development of local capital market
exercise advantages disadvantages of privatization
Exercise: advantages disadvantages of privatization
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • What would you recommend for the power sector:1. Restructuring2. Private sector involvement3. Full fledged privatization?
summary session 2
Summary Session-2
  • Difference between privatization and private sector participation;
  • Ways of involving the private sector in ISP;
  • Examples of various public-private arrangements;
  • Guidance for choosing between various options
  • Arguments for the private supply of sanitation
  • An exercise concerning advantages and disadvantages of privatization
session 3 improved management in public sector enterprises
Session-3: Improved management in public sector enterprises
  • Different options
  • Elements of restructuring
  • Strategies for privatization
  • Example: Management issues water sector
  • Performance indicators water supply
  • Case: contribution of management science
  • Exercise: the cost of issuing bonds versus taking a loan
improved management different options
Improved management: different options:
  • Restructuring state-owned enterprises
  • Privatization
  • Bringing in private sector elements:- in management- in finance- through outsourcing or- out contracting
elements of restructuring
Elements of restructuring
  • Enterprise level changes, such as

- Changing the product mix

- Introducing different technologies

- Change the location, or- The plant configuration

  • Changes in the context in which public sector enterprise functions: more competition, more autonomy, a recession or a new opportunity for export
  • Changes in personnel: change in management and or reduction of employment
strategies for privatization
Strategies for privatization
  • Public offering of shares
  • Private sale of shares
  • New private investment in the enterprise
  • Sale of government assets
  • Reorganisation into component parts
  • Management employee buyout
  • Lease and management contract
  • Combination of the above methods
example 3 issues in water sector insufficient water because of
Example 3: Issues in water sector, insufficient water because of:
  • Lack of repair and maintenance activities
  • No participation of the population in the preparation, or implementation of the project
  • No good cost recovery system
  • No capacity to manage water supply at the municipal level
  • No private sector involvement
performance indicators water
Performance indicators water
  • Solvency ratio (equity capital to total capital)
  • Yield to assets
  • Efficiency as connections per personnel
  • Price of 150 m3
  • Operating revenue as % of operating costs
  • Unaccounted for water
  • Collection efficiency
  • Coverage
  • Service to poor people/neighbourhoods
  • Productivity
case capacity building through mba or short courses
Case: capacity building through MBA or short courses
  • Strategic management, which helps defining where we want to go with an organization
  • Change management: helping organisation and its staff to go from one way of doing things to another way of achieving fixed targets.
  • Project managementmakes projectsuccessful
  • Financial management: techniques assuring positive financial results of enterprises activities
  • Operational management
  • Integration: how can such modules help to analyse a problem and result solutions?
exercise 3 the cost of issuing a bond versus taking a loan
Exercise 3 The cost of issuing a bond versus taking a loan?

Which factors should be taken into account when calculating the cost of issuing a bond versus taking a loan?Think about the need:- to involve investment bank- to get a credit rating- to look for guarantees or insurances- how much can be obtained from one source?

summary session 3
Summary Session-3
  • Different options for improving public sector enterprise management examined
  • Elements of restructuring process listed
  • Strategies for privatisation were presented
  • Management issues in water sector used as illustration, with performance indicators
  • Case: need for capacity building including contribution of management science and short courses
  • Exercise: the cost of issuing bonds versus taking a loan
session 4 what does better enterprise management mean for different levels of government
Session-4: What does better enterprise management mean for different levels of government?
  • What different levels of government can do to improve public enterprise management
  • Government policies to support effective private sector involvement in ISP
  • Cases: water supply in South Africa and solid waste management in Zambia
  • Exercise: design an enterprise friendly environment
  • Summary
what d ifferent levels of government can do to develop economic activities
What different levels of government can do to develop economic activities
  • National level: create policy environment and macroeconomic conditions
  • Regional level: make the region attractive for investors
  • Local government level:- land- infrastructure- consultation stakeholders
general government policies to improve enterprise management
General government policies to improve enterprise management
  • Macro-economic policies
  • Technology development policies
  • Physical planning policies
regional district government policies
Regional / District government policies
  • Develop a vision and strategy on ISP
  • Provide co-ordination between different levels of government
  • Stimulate private sector involvement
  • Discuss with organisations of private sector enterprises
local government policies
Local government policies
  • Provide space and infrastructure
  • Provide incentives for private sector development and involvement
  • Attract foreign investment
  • Provide information on ISP
  • Promote link with local knowledge resources
lusaka zambia private sector involvement in waste collection
Lusaka, Zambia private sector involvement in waste collection
  • Private waste collectors are licensed by the Lusaka City Council and the Environmental Council of Zambia to collect and dispose of waste (usually septic tank waste and solid waste).
  • Operators charge their customers and in turn pay the Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company for disposal of the sanitary wastes into the latter’s facilities
south africa water supply through a partnership
South Africa: water supply through a partnership
  • Private sector and NGO involvement is envisaged
  • The local authority remains responsible:
  • ensuring that the services are provided to the residents and communities
  • regulating the provision of services at local level
  • monitoring the implementation of agreements with service providers
exercise design an enterprise friendly environment
Exercise: design an enterprise friendly environment
  • Design an enterprise friendly environment for your country
  • Specify the role of different levels of government:- local- regional/city level-national
  • What could the private sector itself contribute?
  • Who would you involve (which stakeholders)?
summary session 4
Summary Session-4
  • Role of governments to improve public enterprise management
  • Government policies to support effective private sector involvement in ISP
  • Cases:

- water supply in South Africa- solid waste management in Lusaka, Zambia

  • Exercise: design an environment that is conducive to private sector involvement in ISP