Picture Examination • What’s going on in the picture? • Who is fighting in the picture? • What do you think is the significance of the picture?
The Crusades • 1095–1291 • Goals of the Crusades: • Convert nonbelievers • Eliminate heretics • Regain Holy Land from Muslims Louis IX of France leads crusaders against Damietta, in Egypt
Conflict-Why Fight? • Liberate Jerusalem from Muslims-religious fervor • Infidels-non-believers. • Adventure • Fighting someone else rather than each other • Land • Riches and title.
Pope Urban II • 1095: Pope Urban II’s speech • Promised spiritual rewards • Thousands responded to the call for religious warriors Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades
Religion and Philosophy • Christianity vs. Islam-main conflict. • Christianity vs. Christianity • Catholics vs. Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire. • Christianity vs. Judaism. • Jews were persecuted and killed by the Crusaders.
Technology and Innovation- Social Impacts • Ending of feudal system. • Less nobles • Catholic Church became powerful. • Took lands for money, spiritual guidance • Brought Eastern science to Europe • Crusaders “rediscovered” Greek and Roman knowledge. • Sig: Both led to Renaissance
Social Impacts (con’t) • Chivalry. • Refined Europe, made it “civilized.” • Marco Polo traveling to China. • 1279, Venetian merchant. • Sig: Impacted Columbus later. • Rise of merchant class. • Gave out loans to feudal lords in exchange for special charters privileges. • Where in Europe were most merchants located? Where did the Renaissance start?
Technology and Innovation-Political Impacts • Monarchs gained more power. • Allowed Europe to stay Christian. • Gave Europeans a sense of self.
Trade and Economy-Economic/Commerical Impacts • New fabrics (silk), spices, perfumes, goods (pearls, ivory) introduced. • Words: sugar, cotton, rice. • Increased need for goods from Orient. • Rise of Italian city-states as middle-men. • Rise in money economy.
1096: Mostly French knights Captured Jerusalem in 1099 Crusader states Jerusalem taken by Muslim forces under Saladin in 1187 The First Crusade (1096–1099) A depiction of the capture of Jerusalem by crusaders
Other Crusades • Major and minor crusades took place between the 12th and 14th centuries • Christians unsuccessful at recapturing the Holy Land • Popes invoked crusades more often and for non-spiritual purposes • Legacy of the Crusades: • Increased trade • Religious tensions arose The Crusade on Constantinople
Conclusion • Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christianity and Islam. • Crusaders brought back new goods and ideas from the Middle East. • Greek and Roman knowledge, Arabs and Byzantines preserved it. • New goods and stories of China by Marco Polo also led to European desire for Asian goods.
Group Activity • Put your name on the back of the paper. • Imagine yourselves as the Muslims at the time of the Crusades. • You will be creating a dramatic propaganda poster to promote or inspire the Muslims to fight against the Crusaders. • Your poster must have a slogan and a picture. • Make it as neat and nice as possible. • Due in 30 minutes.
Activity • Put your name on the back of the paper. • Imagine yourselves as the Muslims at the time of the Crusades. • You will be creating a dramatic propaganda poster to promote or inspire the Muslims to fight against the Crusaders. • Your poster must have a slogan and a picture. • Make it as neat and nice as possible. • Due in 30 minutes.
Group Activity • You will be graded on: • How well you fulfill your role. • How well you follow directions. • How neat and organized your chart is. • How well you listen to your classmates by taking notes on the other groups’ presentations.
Group Activity • You will be split into groups of 3. One person will be the leader and the others will be presenters. • You will all be given a paper with 3 columns on it, you will all be writing information on it. • You will also be given a paper with a list of the effects of the Crusades on Europe on it, you may write on this. • Task: As a group, divide the list into social, political, and economic impacts and write them in the appropriate column. • Talk about them and decide as a group where each term will go. • You may write 3 to 5 key words to help you remember the terms on your paper. • You will be given 30 minutes, we will discuss it after.