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Ontological diversity and spatial language. John Bateman University of Bremen. Representations of Space. ontology Foundational Ontologies. Qualitative Spatial Reasoning + Representation. Linguistics. physical mathematical Geometry. R 3. BFO. DOLCE. GFO. RCC. DC. OPRA. 9+.

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ontological diversity and spatial language

Ontological diversity and spatial language

John Bateman

University of Bremen

representations of space
Representations of Space

ontology

Foundational Ontologies

QualitativeSpatialReasoning +

Representation

Linguistics

physical

mathematical

Geometry

R3

BFO

DOLCE

GFO

RCC

DC

OPRA

9+

GUM-Space

?

?

?

?

?

?

‘alignment’

many perspectives on reality many ontologies
Many perspectives on ‘reality’: many ontologies

Ontologically diverse

space-1

event

time

space-2

linguistic ‘view’

event

grammar and semantics
Grammar and Semantics

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

  • Describing how spatial language is actually used according to
    • the literature
    • our controlled experiments
  • Formulating an abstract linguistic semantics for spatial expressions in general
  • Using principles from ontological engineering and heterogeneity for guidance
grouping of spatial relations expressed linguistically
Grouping of spatial relations expressed linguistically

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

Tenbrink (2005, 2006)

slide6

Generalized Upper Model : Version 3 (2004-)

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

Now extended particularly for dealing with spatial language

spatial language

http://www.ontospace.uni-bremen.de

generalized upper model spatial modalities
Generalized Upper Model Spatial Modalities

http://www.ontospace.uni-bremen.de

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

Joana Hois, Robert Ross, Thora Tenbrink, John Bateman

defining spatial commitments
Defining spatial commitments

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

  • linguistic semantics
    • (all and) only the commitments licensed by the linguistic constructions employed

spatial linguistic semantics

slide9
I5-[DiaSpace]

I1-[OntoSpace]

Linguistic ontology view

hp

o

>

details of the axiomatization

lexicogrammatical system

definition and use of the linguistic ontology
Definition and use of the linguistic ontology

OntoSpace/DiaSpace

  • Linked to lexicogrammar and syntax by firm constraints on possible constructions
  • Linked to more detailed semantics via axiomatization
  • The categories of the ontology provide a ‘public’ class-subclass-role organization that hides many details of semantics
  • The semantics of natural language expressions is then envisaged as ‘composition’ of the various spatial theories they invoke.
combining theories for semantic interpretation

hp

o

oriented path

driving along

the roadto Bremen

on the right

is a church

>

route graph

half-planes

physical object occupying a region

Combining theories for semantic interpretation
interpretation
I5-[DiaSpace]

I1-[OntoSpace]

Interpretation

“utterance”

Generalised Upper Model

grammatical + semantic analysis

linguistic

spatial

semantics

contextualisation

contextualised

interpretation

issues for a spatial natural language semantics
Issues for a spatial natural language semantics
  • Needs to connect classes of expressions with classes of axiomatised theories whose domains are abstract and not yet related to ‘real’ space (cf. Eschenbach, Zwarts, ...)
  • Relation of linguistic evidence to formal properties? (cf. Mossakowski/Wölfl)
  • Relations of abstract linguistic spatial theories to non-linguistic spatial theories (models of space) – heterogeneous ontologies? (cf. Kutz/Hois)
  • Relations of abstract linguistic spatial theories to embodiment/simulations?