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Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research PowerPoint Presentation
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Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research

Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research

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Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research

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  1. Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research

  2. Wind Power and Large Scale Hydrogen Production 1.2 B$ Freedom CAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) Initiative will create large demand for low cost/high volume Hydrogen fuel supply • Fossil fuel replacement will require industrial scale hydrogen production, storage and delivery systems • US Today: 84% of hydrogen produced via natural gas reforming w/o carbon sequestration GM Hy-Wire Fuel Cell Car • The Opportunity: Renewable routes to Hydrogen-required to reduce oil dependency and green house gas emissions and improve urban air quality • The Competition: Gasoline-inexpensive at $1.50/Gal: $14/MBTU or 5 ¢/kWh. • The Goal: US DOE Hydrogen cost target-$2/kg or 6 ¢/kWh. • The Candidate: Wind power is commercially viable - COE reduced to ~ 4 ¢/kWh Wind Power for Renewable Hydrogen Production Has Great Potential

  3. Grid Peak Shaving ICE/Fuel Cell H2 Gas Hydrogen Storage O2 Gas • Electrolyzer • Water purification • Regulators • - Gas dryer • Shutdown Switch • etc. + Local H2 Use Power Conditioner -Grid Interconnector -Max Power Tracker -AC/DC converter -Power Supply Switch -etc. Control Systems V - H2 Pipeline H2 Trucking Water Supply Wind-Hydrogen System Concept Wind-Hydrogen Forms a Green Energy Cycle and is Technically Feasible

  4. Tug Hill Plateau Long Island Opportunity Assessment: NY State Wind-H2 NY Wind Map New York Petroleum Usage (310 MM Barrels/year) • NY Wind Potentials: • 4GW onshore • 8GW offshore FEASIBLE: Replace 50% of NY Oil use with Hydrogen from renewable energy sources-Wind Power is Vital Potential Wind Farms

  5. H2 production: 108,000 kg/day @ $3.4/kg H2 Production - Pipeline Delivery (Tug Hill -Syracuse) 4500kg (150 MWh) $100/kWh h ~ 99% 500 MW $1000/kW h ~ 40% Hydrogen Buffer Storage 350 bar Plateau-Syracuse: 30 miles Hydrogen pipeline 10” Diameter, 25 bar $1MM /mile h ~99% (30 miles) 6 MW $1000/kW h ~80% 200 MW 200 MW $1000/kW h ~75% 4500 kg/hr, 25 bar 3 gal/kg H2 O2 Gas H2 production: 107,000 kg/day @ $3.5/kg Water Consumption 324,000 gal/day

  6. H2 production: 100,980 kg/day @ $4.15/kg H2 production: 118,000 kg/day @ $3.5/kg Offshore Wind - Onshore H2 Production (Long Island) 500 MW ~ $1200/kW h ~45% 4950kg (150 MWh) ~ $100/kWh h ~99% Hydrogen Buffer Storage 150 kV AC sub-sea cable ~ $1.2 MM/mile h ~ 98% 8 miles 6 MW h ~80% 220 MW ~ $1000/kW h ~75% ~ 98 trucks (180kg/truck) ~ 60,000/truck h ~85% (40miles) 4950kg/hr, 25 bar 350 bar GH2 220 MW 3 gal/kg H2 O2 Gas Water Consumption 356,400 gal/day NOTE: Assuming trucks are powered by H2

  7. Opportunity Assessment: ND Wind-H2 North Dakota: The “Saudi Arabia” of Wind • Enough wind potential to supply 1/3 of the electricity consumption of the lower 48 states. • No major load centers – need to transmit power to remote locations • Potential to become an clean fuel supplier to Minneapolis & Chicago: • Electricity (through power transmission lines) • Hydrogen (through pipelines) Wind Resources & Infrastructure Challenges

  8. North Dakota - Chicago 1000 miles H2 Production with Pipeline Delivery (ND-Chicago) 4500 kg (150 MWh) $100/kWh 500 MW $1000/kW util. 40% Hydrogen Buffer Storage 350 bar North Dakota-Chicago: 1000 miles Hydrogen pipeline 6 MW $1000/kW h ~80% 10” Diameter, 25 bar $1MM /mile h ~85% (1000 miles) 200 MW 200 MW $1000/kW h ~75% 4500 kg/hr, 25 bar 100 miles 3 gal/kg H2 1 MW 1 MW O2 Gas H2 production: 91,809 kg/day @ $8.9/kg Water Consumption 324,000 gal/day NOTE: Assuming pumps along pipeline are powered by H2

  9. North Dakota - Chicago 1000 miles HVDC Transmission (ND-Chicago) – H2 Production 3060 kg (102 MWh) $100/kWh 500 MW $1000/kW util. 40% Hydrogen Buffer Storage 350 bar 200 MW 5 MW 170 MW $1000/kW h ~75% North Dakota-Chicago: 1000 miles 3825 kg/hr, 25 bar • HVDC Electricity Transmission Cable • 2/3 Overhead: $0.8 MM/mile • 1/3 Underground cable: $1.2 MM/mile • ~85% (1000 miles) 3 gal/kg H2 H2 Production 91,810 kg/day @ $8.85/kg O2 Gas Water 275,427 gal/day

  10. Hydrogen Delivery Alternatives

  11. H2 at gate Wind-Hydrogen System Economics NOTE: no energy delivery considered System Sensibility Analysis COE, Electrolyzer Cost and Efficiency are the Major Cost Factors for Hydrogen

  12. Dedicated Hydrogen Production 100 H 2 Percent Production 0 Hydrogen Off-Peak, Electricity On-Peak 100 H Electricity 2 Percent Production Production 0 Hydrogen Off-Peak, Hydrogen+Electricity On-Peak 100 75 H Electricity 2 Percent Production Production 0 24:00 0:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 Time of Day Viable Wind-Hydrogen System Options • Stand-alone Wind-Hydrogen System • H2 refueling station at remote, isolated area: island, rural area, Alaska, etc. • Wind-electrolysis-fuel cell/H2 ICE (m-turbine) system, wind-reversible electrolysis • Wind hybrid system with H2 production • Grid-connected Wind-Hydrogen System • Dedicated hydrogen production • Off-peak hydrogen production • H2 production only during off-peak electrical demand hours when low-cost electricity is available • Full off-peak • H2 production 24h/day, but lower during on-peak electricity demand times

  13. Stuart Electrolyzer Electrolyzer Technologies Current Technology: • State of the Art Alkaline Electrolyzer, Efficiency: 60-70% (LHV) • Operating temperature: up to 80oC • Operating pressure: 1 atm – 25 atm • Cost: ~$1000/kW - $2500/kW Future Technology: increase capacity, efficiency and reduce cost • System efficiency should reach 70-80% (LHV) by advanced electrolyzer technology • Industrial size electrolyzer (MW level) • Cost should be reduced to $300/kW - $500/kW (COH at $2/kg) • Integration with renewables (wind, PV, geothermal, etc.) New Technology Development Required for Megawatt Scale Electrolyzer

  14. Industrial Scale H2 Stationary Storage Challenge Current Technologies • Compression Processes • High energy consumption: losses 15-30% • High capital cost for large quantity storage: $1000-2000/kW • Pressure to 200 - 350 bar • Liquefaction Processes • High energy consumption: losses 40-50% • High capital cost: $1500-2500/kW • Compressed Storage • Large space required for large quantity storage: limited by pressure (5000 psi now) • Liquid Storage • Boil-off: 0.1-0.3%/day Advanced Storage Technologies: • Low pressure “solid state” : Metal Hydrides, Chemical Hydrides • Large capacity : underground tankage • Low cost: storage material systems design, compression & liquefaction processes Currently: Intense Focus on On-Board Vehicle Storage Future: Effort Required for Industrial Scale Storage

  15. Praxair's Gulf Coast Hydrogen Pipeline System Hydrogen Delivery: Pipelines Current Status: • Future Needs: • Reduce pipeline cost: increase system life, solve embrittlement • Explore the options: modify NG or oil pipelines to carry H2 • High pressure H2: new pipe materials & systems • H2 pipeline safety management Hydrogen Pipeline Practical but Expensive

  16. Wind Power-H2 Generation Summary • Technical Feasibility: Hydrogen production and distribution are feasible • Commercial Viability: Current technologies are immature or high cost • System Optimization Required: Integrating electricity-Hydrogen energy carriers into the current and future energy infrastructure • New Technology Opportunities: • MW scale, high efficiency and low cost electrolyzers with variable power capability • Electrolyzer integration and optimization with wind turbine generator • Large-scale, high density/pressure, low cost hydrogen storage • Energy efficient and cost effective compression and liquefaction processes • Reliable, Low Cost hydrogen energy delivery • High pressure, low cost hydrogen pipelines (pipe materials of construction, infrastructure, etc.) • Electricity transmission with distributed H2 production • Fuel Flexible IC & GT engines capable of utilizing hydrogen and other fuels Wind - Hydrogen is a viable “green energy” solution. Hydrogen infrastructure and new technologies are required.