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Land Planning Concepts. The Methods & Theory Recreation & Outdoor Education Providers use to manage the land & the people. Sustainability.

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land planning concepts

Land Planning Concepts

The Methods & Theory Recreation & Outdoor Education Providers use to manage the land & the people



“The health of the oceans depends on the health of the rivers; the health of the rivers depends on the health of small streams; the health of small streams depends on the health of their watersheds”

Wendell Berry, from a book of essays titled “The Way of Ignorance” – in Duluth News Tribune 11/2/08

basic planning approaches
Basic Planning Approaches
  • Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)
  • Benefits Based Management
    • vs. Best Management Practices
  • Public Participation
  • Multiple Use
  • Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS)
limits of acceptable change g h stankey d n cole r c lucas m e petersen s s frissell 1985
Limits of Acceptable Change(G. H. Stankey, D. N. Cole, R. C. Lucas, M. E. Petersen. & S. S. Frissell, 1985)
  • Based upon a set of baseline data To know the area before development
  • An effort to prevent desensitization
  • Reflects biological, physical, and social conditions The social demands are what most influence the biological & physical

The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) planning system

  • Response to growing recognition in the U .S. that attempts to define and implement recreational carrying capacities were both excessively reductionistic and failing.
  • Carrying capacity concept itself was based on biological models.
  • Such models did not transfer well into ecosystems being managed for human benefits based primarily on recreational experiences

LAC was based on the recognition that

  • ( 1) specific objectives were needed to identify what it was that management was to protect,
  • (2) change is always present in nature-dominated systems,
  • (3) any recreational use leads to some change,
  • (4) management is therefore confronted with the question of how much change is acceptable, and
  • (5) monitoring of the outcomes of management is needed to determine if actions were effective. (McCool, 1989. Paper presented at Workshop on Impact Management in Marine Parks, sponsored by Maritime Institute of Malaysia, August 13-14, 1996, Kuala Lumpur, MALA YSIA)
benefits based management
Benefits Based Management
  • Similar to LAC
  • Assesses a range of benefits of the site Includes biological, physical, & social
  • Determines highest priorities of site through rankings (socially determined) and manages based on those benefits.
multiple use
Multiple Use
  • Coined by Gifford Pinchot
  • An effort to provide multiple compatible uses for an area
  • It is not everyone’s right to use the same area.
designations classes in ros
Designations (Classes) in ROS
  • Primitive
  • Semi-primitive Nonmotorized
  • Semi-primitive Motorized
  • Roaded Natural
  • Rural
  • Urban