The Golden Age Agenda. Greece. 6.3 Outline. Outline. A. Philip of Macedon 1. 359 B.C. he becomes king of Macedonia – after being captive in Thebes as a youth. 2. recruited and organized the best disciplined army in Macedonian history
5. Demosthenes – spoke out against Philip II
a. tried to get Athens to fight for liberty from Phillip
b. his attempts failed because the other city states would not follow and were crushed by Phillip.
6. Philip defeated Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea which united Greece under Phillip’s rule.
7. Philip was assassinated before he could invade Persia.
8. Philip’s son – Alexander – took over for him after he died.
B. Alexander the Great (son of Phillip II of Macedon)
1. Alexander received the best training possible
a. military training in the Macedonian army
b. formal education from Aristotle
2. Alexander crushed local rebellions then set off to conquer the world
3. completely destroyed Persia by 331 B.C. and in the process conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
4. His goal was to conquer India, but his troops fought for 4 yrs. and refused to go any farther
5. ATG split his army into two groups
a. one sailed west exploring the Persian Gulf
b. ATG led the other half across the desert (many of his troops died)
6. ATG contracted a fever and died in June of 323 B.C. before he turned 33
C. Beginnings of the Hellenistic World
1. ATG purposely spread the Greek & founded cities where Greeks/Macedonians lived with the Persians
2. With the Greeks, Persians, and Macedonians working together ATG was able to rule much more efficiently
3. ATG married two Persian women and required his generals to marry royal Persian women
4. ATG also held a mass wedding where 10,000 of his troops married Persian women
5. Hellenistic culture combined ideas and values drawn from the Greek, Hellenic, Mediterranean, and Asia.
6. Hellenistic period lasted from ATG death to the Roman conquest in 146 BC
7. After ATG’s death his generals competed for his empire
a. 3 generals divided the empire into 3 main kingdoms Macedon, Egypt, and Syria
b. these kingdoms were often at war until they were conquered by the Romans
B. Religion and Philosophy
B. Religion and Philosophy (cont.)
3. Four schools of philosophy.
d. Epicureanism (Epicurus) – seek pleasure and avoid pain BUT limit desires in order to avoid suffering.
C. Mathematics and Physics
E. Astronomy and geography