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Chapter 18 Review “Reaction Rates and Equilibrium”. Chapter 18 Review. Energy that is available to do work is called ____. ____ is defined as the number of atoms, ions, or molecules that react in a given time to form products.

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Chapter 18 review reaction rates and equilibrium

Chapter 18 Review“Reaction Rates and Equilibrium”


Chapter 18 review
Chapter 18 Review

  • Energy that is available to do work is called ____.

  • ____ is defined as the number of atoms, ions, or molecules that react in a given time to form products.

  • What is the name of the minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react?


Chapter 18 review1
Chapter 18 Review

  • A substance that interferes with a catalyst is a(n) ____.

  • What is the arrangement of atoms at the peak of an energy barrier?

  • At equilibrium, what is the rate of production of reactants compared with the rate of production of products?


Chapter 18 review2
Chapter 18 Review

  • What is the equilibrium constant expression for the following reaction: C(s) + O2(g)↔ CO2(g)

  • Which of the following is true about the combustion of carbon: a) the reaction is spontaneous, or b) entropy decreases?

  • The rate of a chemical reaction normally ____ as reactant concentration increases.


Chapter 18 review3
Chapter 18 Review

  • Why does a higher concentration make a reaction faster?

  • The amount of disorder in a system is measured by its ____.

  • Entropy measures ____

  • What units represent a reaction rate?

  • For a complex reaction, the reaction progress curve has several ____.


Chapter 18 review4
Chapter 18 Review

  • What happens to a reaction at equilibrium when more reactant is added to the system?

  • Which reaction results in the greatest increase in entropy: a) A → B, or b) A → 2B

  • If a reaction has an equilibrium constant (Keq) just greater than 1, how do we interpret that information?


Chapter 18 review5
Chapter 18 Review

  • A catalyst works by ____.

  • If sulfur dioxide and oxygen can be made into sulfur trioxide, what is the reverse reaction?

  • Which variable is NOT required to calculate the Gibbs free-energy change for a chemical reaction: a) change in enthalpy, or b) temperature in oC?


Chapter 18 review6
Chapter 18 Review

  • What is the effect of adding more water to the following equilibrium reaction: CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3

  • In an endothermic reaction at equilibrium, what is the effect of raising the temperature?

  • The energy that is available to do work in a reaction is called ____.


Chapter 18 review7
Chapter 18 Review

  • What is the numerical value (+ or -) of Gibbs free-energy change for a spontaneous reaction?

  • At what stage of a reaction do atoms have the highest energy?

  • Which of the following systems has the highest entropy: a) 10 mL of water at 50 oC, or b) 10 mL of water at 100 oC?


Chapter 18 review8
Chapter 18 Review

  • What happens to a catalyst in a reaction?

  • Write the rate law for the following reaction: A + 2B → C + D

  • An elementary reaction converts reactants to products in ____.

  • Activation energy is ____.

  • Is the melting of ice at a temperature above 0 oC: a) endothermic, or b) exothermic?


Chapter 18 review9
Chapter 18 Review

  • Consider the reaction: N2(g) + 3H2(g)↔ 2NH3(g) What is the effect of decreasing the volume on the contained gases?

  • Spontaneous reactions always ____ free energy.

  • Why does a higher temperature cause a reaction to go faster?


Chapter 18 review10
Chapter 18 Review

  • What 2 factors determine whether or not a reaction is spontaneous?

  • If a reaction is reversible, what are the relative amounts of reactant and product at the end of the reaction?

  • What physical state of nitrogen has the highest entropy?

  • What is another name for the catalysts in your body?


Chapter 18 review11
Chapter 18 Review

  • What is the order of the following reaction: A + 2B → C + D

  • Why does a catalyst cause a reaction to proceed faster?

  • In an equilibrium reaction with a Keq of 1 x 108, the ____ are favored.

  • Which of the following explains why melting of ice is spontaneous at room temperature and pressure: a) it is accompanied by an increase in entropy, or b) it is accompanied by an increase in energy?


Chapter 18 review12
Chapter 18 Review

  • The Keq of a reaction is 4 x 10-7. At equilibrium, the ____ are favored.

  • Another name for the activated complex is ____.

  • Which change would shift the following reaction to the right: 4HCl(g) + O2(g)↔ 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g) a) decrease of pressure, or b) increase of pressure?


Chapter 18 review13
Chapter 18 Review

  • In which of these systems is the entropy decreasing: a) salt dissolving in water, or b) a liquid cooling?

  • Given: 2NClO(g)↔ 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) An analysis of the equilibrium mixture in a 1 L flask is: NClO = 1.6 mol; NO = 6.4 mol; Cl2 = 0.49 mol. Calculate the value of Keq.


Chapter 18 review14
Chapter 18 Review

  • In a two-step reaction mechanism, how many elementary reactions occur?

  • The Ksp of calcium hydroxide is 6.5 x 10-6. If 0.10 mol of sodium hydroxide is added to 1 L of 0.0010 M Ca(OH)2, what is the final concentration of the calcium ion?


Chapter 18 review15
Chapter 18 Review

  • A mixture of hydrogen and iodine are in equilibrium with hydrogen iodide, as shown in the equation: H2 + I2↔ 2HI Calculate the concentration of HI when the Keq is 1 x 105, the equilibrium concentration of H2 is 0.04 M, and the equilibrium concentration of I2 is 0.009 M.


Chapter 18 review16
Chapter 18 Review

End of Chapter 18 Review


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