Part 2 Principles of Flight & Navigation Chap. 7- Basic Aeronautics & Aerodynamics Chap. 8- Aircraft in Motion Chap. 9- Flight Navigation
7 Basic Aeronautics & Aerodynamics Lift & Angle of Attack Airfoil Design (Sub-sonic) Daniel Bernoulli • Dutch physicist, 1738 • Discovered relationship between the pressure and speed of fluid in motion • Bernoulli’s Principle: “As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure decreases” 4 Forces of Flight Aircraft Lift • Induced Lift (“Bernoulli” lift) • Dynamic Lift (relative wind strikes the wing underside, further increasing pressure, at increasing angles of attack - “Newtonian” lift)
7 Basic Aeronautics & Aerodynamics Wingtip Vortices Drag (the “Killer”) Stall • Drag (parasitic and induced) limits ability to go forward. • Vortices create drag and wake turbulence. • Separation occurs at high angle of attack and eliminates lift. • Supersonic flow different than sub-sonic flow (air ahead is warned by compressed air at leading edge).
8 Aircraft in Motion The Axes of An Aircraft Lateral Axis Longitudinal Axis Vertical Axis
8 Aircraft in Motion Engines • Reciprocating • Fuel converted to energy in cylinder • Rocket • Fuel + Oxygen • Turbine • Turbojet • Turbofan • Turboprop • Turboshaft
8 Aircraft in Motion Parts of a Reciprocating Engine • Propeller Cross-Section • Airfoil designed to yield constant force. • Propeller tip speeds approach Mach 1.
8 Aircraft in Motion Fuel System Gravity Fed System Force Fed System
8 Aircraft in Motion Aircraft Instruments • Performance - How aircraft responds to commands • Control - Current state of aircraft devices Instrument Types Engine Flight Navigational Tachometer Oil Pressure Oil Temperature Manifold Pressure Carburetor Temp. Exhaust Gas Temp. Airspeed Indicator Altimeter Turn/slip Indicator Vertical Speed Ind. Attitude Indicator (Artificial Horizon) Mag. Compass Heading Ind. VOR Indicator Loran GPS
9 Flight Navigation Global Coordinate System Greenwich, England Flat maps of a round object • Prime Meridian (0° longitude) defined to pass through Greenwich, England • International Date Line (180° longitude) on opposite side and defines the start of a new day.
9 Flight Navigation • Basic Navigation Techniques • Pilotage - Reference to visible landmarks • Dead Reckoning - Systematic consideration of all factors that could affect the flight • Sectional Charts • Relief - Elevations • Hydrographic - Bodies of water • Cultural - Cities, towns • Airports - Civil & Military • Airspace & Airways - Navigation
9 Flight Navigation • Electronic Navigation Aids • VOR’s and similar beacons • Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) • Electronic Landing Aids • Instrument Landing Systems • Microwave Landing Systems • Differential GPS Landing Systems