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13/14 Spring Semester . Energy (TKK-2129). Instructor: Rama Oktavian Email: rama.oktavian86@gmail.com Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11. Outlines. 1. Geothermal energy. 2. Solar energy . 3. Wind energy. 4. Hydro energy. Geothermal energy. What is it??.

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energy tkk 2129

13/14 Spring Semester

Energy(TKK-2129)

Instructor: Rama Oktavian

Email: rama.oktavian86@gmail.com

  • Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15, F. 09-11
outlines
Outlines

1. Geothermal energy

2. Solar energy

3. Wind energy

4. Hydro energy

geothermal energy
Geothermal energy

What is it??

- energy that comes from the ground; power extracted from heat stored in the earth

- It was formed by the decay of minerals and forests several years ago

- heat is continuously produced inside the earth

http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/GeothermalEnergy.php

geothermal energy1
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy uses

http://www.conservationconversations.com/cmswp/wp-content/uploads/GeothermalTable.jpg

geothermal energy2
Geothermal energy

Used as district heating

1892: America’s first district heating system was put into place

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy3
Geothermal energy

Used as district heating

1892: America’s first district heating system was put into place

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy4
Geothermal energy

Advantages

  • Renewability
  • Earth’s core is always going to be heated
  • As long as there is a way to extract the energy from the heat, the energy will always be available

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy5
Geothermal energy

Advantages

  • Smaller carbon footprint and environmentally friendly
  • Remarkable difference of environmental effects compared to fossil fuels
  • Most hardware used to extract geothermal energy is underground
  • Minimal use of surface

(http://www.geothermal.nau.edu/about/enviroment.shtmlNorthern Arizona University. 2009 Oct 27)

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy6
Geothermal energy

Advantages

  • Lower cost
  • Easy to operate
  • Open up economy
  • Much more efficient use of land

(http://www.geothermal.nau.edu/about/enviroment.shtml> Northern Arizona University. 2009 Oct 27)

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy7
Geothermal energy

Disadvantages

  • Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases
  • Pollutants contribute to global warming and acid rain
  • Construction of Plants can adversely affect land stability
  • Sources may hold trace amounts of toxic chemicals/mineral deposits
  • Loud Noises
  • Initial start up cost (expensive)

Alex Mayada, Chris Bartlow, Tim Fisher, Lauren Pawling. Geothermal energy. http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html

geothermal energy8
Geothermal energy

How it works

  • Geothermal power plant

http://drpinna.com/geothermal-energy-get-some-at-your-gas-station-27882

geothermal energy9
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

  • Sources

Hazrul L Azahari, 2012, Introduction to Renewable Energy in Indonesia, Microhydro power training for rural development in ASEAN region, Bandung

geothermal energy10
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Hazrul L Azahari, 2012, Introduction to Renewable Energy in Indonesia, Microhydro power training for rural development in ASEAN region, Bandung

geothermal energy11

2,90 %

Feasibility Study/Ready to Develop

(8 locations)

32,61 %

2,54 %

Detail ± Gradient Temp

(90 locations)

Installed

(7 locations)

53,99 %

7,97%

Reconnaissance

(149 locations)

Preliminary Survey

(22 locations)

Total Locations : 276

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

  • Current status (2010)

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy12
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

  • Geothermal Potential is more than 28.000 MW
  • Installed Capacities is 1196 MW:
    • Darajat – 260 MW (2005: 150 MW)
    • Dieng – 60 MW (2005: 60 MW)
    • Kamojang – 200MW (2005: 140 MW)
    • GunungSalak – 377MW (2005: 345MW)
    • Sibayak – 12MW (2005: 2 MW)
    • Lahendong – 60 MW (2005: 20 MW)
    • Wayang Windu – 227MW (2005: 110 MW).
  • Some direct use are under research program and some others are in utilized
  • Geothermal Road Map : increase to 9500 MW on 2025

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy13
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Geothermal direct use

  • Palm sugar processing in Lahendong
  • Copra drying in Lahendong, Mataloko and WaiRatai Lampung,
  • Mushroom cultivation in Kamojang and Pengalengan,
  • Tea drying and pasteurization in Pengalengan.
  • Fish farming in Lampung.
  • Balneology, spas
  • No heat Pump use so far

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy14
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Masarang Palm Sugar Processing in Lahendong, North Sulawesi . Steam consumption : 4 ton/hrs

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy15
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Geothermal road map 2004 - 2025

2010

2004

2008

2012

2016

2020

2025

822 MW

(production)

2000 MW

3442 MW

4600 MW

6000 MW

(target)

9000 MW

(target)

1193 MW

Existing WKP

1442 MW

Existing WKP

1158 MW

Existing WKP

+ New WKP

1400 MW

New WKP

2008

2016

2010

2004

2012

2020

2025

1196 MW

Existing WKP

Geothermal Road - map

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy16
Geothermal energy

OIL

GAS

COAL

GEOTHERMAL

HYDRO

2018

(365 TWh)

Primary Energy Year 2025

(Scenarion PD No.5/2006)

Primary Energy Year 2025

(BaU Scenario)

2008

(148 TWh)

GEOTHERMAL

GROWTH

GAS

HYDRO

HYDRO

OIL

GAS

COAL

COAL

Source: Indonesia Total Electricity Production by Fuel Type (GWH)

RUPTL 2009-2018, PLN - General Plan to Supply Electricity

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy17
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Barriers

  • Availability of good quality data
  • Delay of project development,
  • Bureaucracy,
  • Lack of Power Plant Maintenance,
  • The liability of the transmission line and infrastructure
  • Human capital on geothermal industry
  • Energy diversification is inconsistence

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy18
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Opportunities

  • Robust electricity demand growth
  • Indonesia energy policy-Renewable prioritized, 10 thousands MW electricity accelerating project (Government Regulation No. 5 Year 2006, and GR No. 4/2010)
  • Indonesia has the largest inventory of undeveloped Geothermal resources in the world (40%)
  • Geothermal price can be competitive and affordable

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

geothermal energy19
Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy in Indonesia

Development challenges

  • Competitiveness of Geothermal Energy Price;
  • Continuing Subsidy of Fossil Fuel Price;
  • Political Will to Intensify Geothermal Energy Utilization;
  • Shortage of Competence Human Resources;
  • Absence of Technology and Research & Development Supports;
  • Lack of renewable incentives;
  • Absence of Integrated Energy Planning;
  • Lack of Information and Publicity on Indonesia’ Geothermal Potency and Benefits; and
  • Low Environmental Awareness.

Surya Darma, 2011, Current Outlook on Geothermal in Indonesia, ASEAN – AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND BUSINESS SEMINAR

solar energy
Solar Energy

The ultimate energy resource

  • Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun.
  • Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves).

Bhavik Shah, Solar Energy: The Ultimate Renewable Resource, http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/

solar energy1
Solar Energy

Advantages

  • Ultimate and free resource (sun)
  • Does not harmful environmental (no emission gas)
  • Can be used in remote areas
  • make absolutely no noise at all
  • Very little maintenance is needed
solar energy2
Solar Energy

Advantages

  • Comparative life-cycle CO2 emissions

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/environmental-impacts-solar-power.html

solar energy3
Solar Energy

Disadvantages

  • High initial installation cost of solar cell and solar panel
  • Electricity generation depends entirely on a countries exposure to sunlight
  • Solar energy is a diffuse source. To harness it, we must concentrate it into an amount and form that we can use, such as heat and electricity.
solar energy4
Solar Energy

How much solar energy can be absorbed?

  • The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable.

http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/~kotliar/honors/honsem02/somalwar/HonSem02

solar energy5
Solar Energy

Solar energy uses

http://www.keepbanderabeautiful.org/photovoltaic.html

solar energy6

www.rainbowtradingpost.co.uk

www.urbanoptions.org/RenewableEnergy

Solar Energy

Solar energy uses

solar energy7

Concentrating solar thermal (CST)

Photovoltaic (PV)

greenoptions.com

www.renewableenergyaccess.com

Solar Energy

Solar energy uses as electricity generator

solar energy8
Solar Energy

Solar energy uses as electricity generator

solar energy9
Solar Energy

Concerns associated with PV and Solar Cell

  • Heavy investment.
  • High-latitude areas receive relatively little sunshine.
  • Solar unreliable at night, during winter, and during cloudy periods.
  • Storage difficult; relies on batteries that may leak chemicals.
  • Some PV cells use heavy metals - toxic and difficult to recycle.
  • Solar farms require much land, currently between 5 and 10 acres / megawatt.
  • http://klemow.wilkes.edu/KMK.courses.html
solar energy10
Solar energy

Solar energy in Indonesia

  • Sources

112.000 GW

Hazrul L Azahari, 2012, Introduction to Renewable Energy in Indonesia, Microhydro power training for rural development in ASEAN region, Bandung

solar energy11

Hydro Power,

3.11%

Geothermal,

1.32%

Natural Gas,

28.57%

Oil

51.66%

Coal, 15.34%

Power Plant, 1.9%

Mini/micro Hydro Power Plant, 0.1%

Geothermal,

Oil,

1.1%

20%

Gas, 20.6%

Gas, 30%

BIOFUELS, 5%

Geothermal, 5%

RE,17%

Oil,

41.7%

Biomass, Nuclear, Hydro

Solar Energy, Wind

Power, 5%

Coal Liquefaction

2%

Coal , 33%

Coal 34.6%

Solar energy

CURRENT ENERGI MIX (1 million BOE) National (Primary) Energy Mix

Target in 2025

1. Less than 1 for energy elasticity

2. Optimized primary energy mix

National (Primary) Energy Mix of 2025

(BaU Scenario) (5 million BOE)

National Energy Mix 2025 (3 million BOE)

(Presidential Decree No. 5/2006)

OPTIMIZING

ENERGY

MANAGEMENT

solar energy12
Solar energy

Based on the Blueprint of National Energy Management

wind energy
Wind energy

Hazrul L Azahari, 2012, Introduction to Renewable Energy in Indonesia, Microhydro power training for rural development in ASEAN region, Bandung

wind energy1
Wind energy

KESDM, 2008

wind energy2
Wind energy

How does it work?

http://fredzidd.myweb.uga.edu/EDIT/6190/project/ae_wind_turbine.htm

wind energy3
Wind energy

How does it work?

http://smknews.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/wind_energy.jpg