Restorative Programmes Done by: Tan XinRen Galileo Yap ChiaZhongHao
Table of Content • Restorative Justice Initiatives in Singapore • Restorative Justice Initiatives in USA • Restorative Justice Initiatives in China • Restorative Justice Initiatives in NewZealan
Restorative Justice Initiatives in Singapore • Streetwise Programme • Youth Family Care Programme • BPC Family Conferencing • School-Probation-Courts (SPC) Link-up
Streetwise Programme • Government funded project • Initiated by the Inter-Ministry Committee on Youth Crime (IMYC) • Coordinated by the National Youth Council (NYC). • 4 youth agencies work together with the NYC in administering this programme.
Streetwise Programme • The Juvenile Court refers offenders to Streetwise Programme as probation • Intensive 6-month structured programme • Aims to change the behaviour of youths who have unwittingly drifted into gangs. • Aims to help these youths "turn around" and gain a fresh start in life.
Streetwise Programme • Methods include: Counselling Family conferencing Peer support Recreation Academic Activities
Youth Family Care Programme • YCF is run by the Counselling And Psychological Services (CAPS)and the Singapore Children's' Society (SCS). • Delinquent youth coming from broken and dysfunctional family have no adequate family role models. • Mentor Families volunteer are matched to befriend, mentor, support and encourage delinquent youths who are in probation
Youth Family Care Programme • Targets: Juvenile offenders beyond parental control Delinquents with little family support Offenders are remorseful about their past misdeeds Youths with no in-grained delinquent traits • Aim to provide hope for offenders and provide modeling for healthy families that work.
Beyond Parental Control (BPC) Family Conferencing • Its philosophy is similar to that of the Family Conferencing for offenders • Targeted at juveniles who are Beyond Parental Control • Introduced to strengthen family units, empower parents and the community to regain control of the juveniles. • Aims : to encourage the juvenile to take responsibility for his behaviour reduce the placement of juvenile in institutions accommodating offenders reduce the likelihood of the juvenile committing an offence.
School-Probation-Courts (SPC) Link-up • Implemented on 1 July 2000 • Institutionalizes the role of Operations Managers (OMs) in schools • OMs hold non-teaching posts in schools and handle school administrative operations including disciplinary issues. • Improves the communication and follow-up channels between the schools and the Courts in probation matters.
Role of OMs • Responsible for assisting the Probation Officer during the pre-sentence investigation stage • Draws up the supervision plan should probation be granted. • OM will be the contact person for all probationers' matters
Restorative Justice Initiatives in USA • Station Adjustment Collaboration • Violence Intervention Program • Community Liaison Program • Diversion Compliance Program • Jump-Start Program • Choices Program • Victim Advocacy Program
Introduction • The Juvenile Probation and Court Services Department has developed a series of pre- and post- adjudication programs • Part of the Balanced and Restorative Justice (Juvenile Justice Reform Act). • The purpose is to hold juvenile offenders accountable for their conduct • It also youths to develop positive life skills to enable them to become productive members of the community
Station Adjustment Collaboration • This program facilitates collaboration with the Chicago Police Department's Youth Division • Coordinating services for youth receiving station adjustments • Services provided through this program are mainly delinquency prevention and early intervention strategies.
Community Liaison Program • This program coordinates networking with community agencies and groups to identify local delinquency issues. • Facilitate community participation in a variety of programs • Serves as a resource directory and library relating to Balanced and Restorative Justice issues.
Diversion Compliance Program • This program coordinates transfer of youth delinquents from one section to another section.
Choices Program • This program is paired with the regular conferences. • All minors and parents diverted from formal court action will be directed to a daily on-site presentation. • Topics presented include: resisting peer pressure to become involved in drugs, alcohol or gangs preventing violence examining the impact of delinquency on the community and on individual victims.
Violence Intervention Program • This program utilizes the Straight Talk About Risks (STAR) educational curriculum. • Program participants attend the various programmes which incorporates discussions with victims of violent offenses.
Jump-Start Program • This program teaches life skills and basic competence • Targets are one of the most challenging populations, 16 to 18 year-old delinquent drop outs. • This program operates in partnership with the Street Dreams job development program • It facilitates the minor's transition from the Jump Start program to employment within the community
Victim Advocacy Program • Aim to help reduce the immediate and long-term impact of being a victim • Promote the accountability of the offender. • A special component of the program is to allows the Juvenile Probation and Court Services Department to obtain victim impact information. • This enhances the probation officer's opportunities to encourage actions that demonstrate empathy from the offender
Restorative Justice in China • Victim-Offender Reconciliation • Practiced since the start of the 21st century • Following the essential values of personalism, participation, reparation and reintegration • Connects criminal justice with mediation or private reconciliation by themselves • Chances of non-official settlements • Influence the decision of authoritative agencies (courts)
Restorative Justice in China • To restore the victim’s interests • Urge the wrongdoer to repent his mistakes • Compensate the victim’s loss • Restore the damaged community harmony • The victim, the offender and the community are given primary responsibilities to decide how to solve/work out the problem without the use of criminal justice • The strong ties of the community reduce the possibility of a repeat offence
Restorative justice in new Zealand • Family group conferences • Encourages a low-key response from the police to juvenile offences whenever possible • Main goal is to formulate a plan about how best to deal with the offender • Three main components: • Ascertaining if the juvenile admits to his wrongdoing • Sharing information about the offense (details) • Deciding the outcome or recommendation
Restorative justice in new Zealand • Conferences are meant to be flexible and responsive for the juvenile, the families and the victim • Takes into accounts the views of the victim • The need to make the juvenile offender accountable for his offence • Prevent repeat offences by enhancing the well being of the offender or strengthening the family • Possible outcomes include an apology, community work, reparations, or involvement in a community program
Restorative justice in new Zealand • Can take place anytime, as long as the victim and the families agree • Conferences usually take much longer than court verdicts • Families prefer the conferences than court hearings • Greater degree of support and lower stress levels • Provided a realistic forum for decision making • Making parents responsible for their children • Empowers families without increasing blame to play a pivotal role in arriving at decisions involving their children
Bibliography • http://www.cookcountycourt.org/services/programs/juvenile/balanced.html • http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/contents.html • http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/framwork.pdf • http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/0/1/4/9/pages201497/p201497-2.php • http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2459198/The-Past-Present-and-Future-of-Restorative-Justice
The End Thank You!