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Critical Thinking

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  1. Thinking – how you make sense of the world Senses Perceiving – construct beliefs – selecting, organizing, interpreting sensations Out eye glasses – filters – select and shape - perceive Critical Thinking

  2. Critical thinker – lenses Purposeful, organized way – able to solve problems, work toward goals, analyze issues, make decisions Shape personal experience – actively select, organize, interpret – what provided by senses, eyeglasses, lenses Active participant vs. passive receiver of information Eliminate bias – actively making sense of sensations Critical Thinking

  3. Perceptions – influenced by past experiences, way brought up, relationships that you have had and have now, your training and education Perceiving – efforts to make sense of the world – not complete – shaped by our lenses Beliefs – interpretation, evaluation, conclusion, prediction of nature of world Critical Thinking

  4. Perceptual experiences – do not result in beliefs – simply experiences – organize them into a belief structure Perceptual experiences contribute to formation of beliefs and beliefs formed influence the perceptions used to organize and interpret Cognition – thinking process of constructing beliefs Critical Thinking

  5. Critical thinker – continually monitor and evaluate both – interactive process – beliefs and perceptions – develop the most informed perspective of the world All beliefs are not the same Reporting factual information Inferring – not factual reports – go beyond what can be directly observed Critical Thinking

  6. Evaluate how certain your beliefs are – crucial to distinguish inferences from actual beliefs and then evaluate how certain or uncertain inferences are Many predictions you make are inferences based on past experience and information that presently have Incorrect inferences – serious consequences Differences in judgement – cause disagreements – quality judgements – depend on identifying the criteria Critical Thinking

  7. Many important skills – go beyond knowledge and expertise – entry-level positions/promotions Communication skills – articulate thoughts, ideas, processes, both verbally and in writing; listen completely Decision-making – develop a course of action, make a realistic decision What employers look for

  8. Ability to set and meet goals – balancing multiple priorities, planning and goal setting, and achievement/success of plan leadership/teamwork/cooperation – contribute beyond oneself Technological awareness – use computers to gain access to information and to control and produce data What employers look for

  9. Congratulations! You have been selected to serve on the Los Angeles committee charged with determining who should receive vital organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart). Unfortunately, the demand for organs exceeds the availability, so your committee has hard a ethical decision to make. Your first challenge is to decide which of the following individuals should receive a liver transplant, without which they will die. Explain how the following individuals should rank in terms of priority. A 12-year-old child Your 70-year-old grandmother A 45-year-old pediatric neuro-surgeon A 37-year-old single mother of three children The Pope Oprah Winfrey

  10. Ethical subjectivism – each person determines what is morally right? Do what you feel is morally right. Cultural relativism – each culture determines what is morally right. Do what your culture tells you is morally right. Ethical egoism – do whatever is most in your self-interest. Religious ethics – do whatever your religion commands you to do. Utilitarian ethics – do whatever will bring the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest number of people. Immanuel Kant's ethics of duty – do whatever you would want to become a universal moral law that anyone must follow Aristotle's virtue ethics – do whatever a virtuous person would do, one who is following The Golden Mean. Existentialist ethics – accept the responsibility that comes with your absolute freedom and make choices that express your view of what humans should be. The ethics of care – do whatever most expresses your profound care for others.

  11. Assign #10: roadmap – for your major, (due 2/9) – cbe.calstatela.edu • Assign#11: thinking activity 4.2, pg. 124 – who are you questions?, 1 page, (due 2/9)‏