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Sexual Reproduction in Seed Plants. I. Reproductive Structures of Seed Plants. A. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 1. Gametophyte is extremely small 2. Spores are not released- remain in tissue of sporophyte and develop into the gametophytes (male and female

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a gymnosperms and angiosperms
A. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  • 1. Gametophyte is extremely small
  • 2. Spores are not released- remain in tissue of sporophyte and develop into the gametophytes (male and female
    • A. Pollen grain- immature male gametophyte
    • B. Ovule- multicellular structure that is part of the sporophyte where the female gametophyte develops
  • 3. Following fertilization, the ovule and its contents develop into a seed
b reproduce sexually without water
B. Reproduce sexually without water
  • 1. Wind and animals transport pollen grains to ovules
    • A. Pollination- transfer of pollen grains from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
    • B. Pollen Tube- tube that emerges from the pollen grain and grows to the ovule to pass sperm directly to the egg
a review
A. Review
  • 1. Seeds contain the embryo of seed plants
  • 2. Plant embryo is a new sporophyte
  • 3. Seeds form from an ovule after the egg has been fertilized
b seed structures
B. Seed Structures
  • 1. Seed Coat- outer layers of the ovule that harden as the seed matures
    • A. offers protection
    • B. seeds germinate at different times, in different conditions, or must be exposed to light. The seed coat helps maintain the seed until that time
  • 2. Endosperm- tissue that provided nutrients for the embryo
  • 3. Cotyledon- seed leaf
    • A. transfer nutrients to the embryo
    • B. Monocots- 1 cotyledon, Dicots- 2 cotyledons

A. Seed plants are the most successful plants

    • 1. Angiosperms-ovules that are completely enclosed
    • 2. Gymnosperms- ovules enclosed after pollination
  • B. Gametophyte of gymnosperm develops in cones
    • 1. whorls of modified leaves
    • 2. male pollen cones or female seed cones

C. Pollination

    • 1. pollen grains carried by wind to female cone
    • 2. during pollination, female cones are open to expose ovules
    • 3. pollen tube grows into the ovule
    • 4. sperm enters ovule
    • 5. seed cone closes after pollination and remains closed until the seeds mature, which can take up to two years
d life cycle of a conifer
D. Life Cycle of a Conifer
  • 1. The zygote and ovule develop into a seed which grows into a new sporophyte
  • 2. An adult pine tree produces male and female cones
  • 3. Meiosis occurs
  • 4. Male and female spores form on the scales of the cones
  • 5. Spores develop into male and female gametophytes
  • 6. After pollination, sperm enter the ovule through a pollen tube and fertilization occurs
a angiosperms gametophytes develop in flowers
A. Angiosperms, gametophytes develop in flowers
  • B. Structure of a Flower- arranged in 4 concentric whorls
    • 1. sepals- outermost whorls that protect the flower from damage while still a bud
    • 2. petals- 2nd whorl that attracts pollinators
    • 3. stamens- 3rd whorl that produces pollen
      • A. Anther- pollen producing sac
    • 4. pistils- 4th whorl which produces ovules that develop in the swollen lower part which is called the ovary and has a style, which rises from is

C. flowers may or may not have all 4 whorls

    • 1. complete flowers have all four
    • 2. incomplete flowers lack one or more of the whorls
    • 3. perfect flowers contain stamen and pistils
    • 4. imperfect flowers lack a stamen or pistil
  • D. flowers attract insects that pick up pollen from the stamen and take it to pistils of that flower or other flowers when they pick up the flower’s nectar
e life cycle of an angiosperm
E. Life Cycle of an Angiosperm
  • 1. the zygote and ovule develop into a seed which grows into a new sporophyte
  • 2. a flower produces male spores inside its anthers and the female spores inside its pistil
  • 3. meiosis occurs
  • 4. spores develop into male and female gametophytes
  • 5. pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a pistil
  • 6. sperm enters an ovule through a pollen tube and fertilization occurs

A. Vegetative reproduction is the growth of new plants from non-reproductive plant parts, like stems, roots, and leaves

  • B. Kalanchoes are succulents that are often grown as potted plants and readily reproduce either vegetatively or by seeds
  • C. People often grow plants from their vegetative structures which is called vegetative propagation