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Workshop on Transplanckian Physics. Uppsala, 24-26 october 2002. Review of Standard Big Bang Cosmology. Standard BB Cosmology. Hubble Law (20’s) and redshift CMBR (60’s and today) Nucleosynthesis Age of the Universe

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workshop on transplanckian physics

Workshop on Transplanckian Physics

Uppsala, 24-26 october 2002

standard bb cosmology
Standard BB Cosmology
  • Hubble Law (20’s) and redshift
  • CMBR (60’s and today)
  • Nucleosynthesis
  • Age of the Universe
  • Expansion Models
  • Dark Matter/Energy
  • Other models: steady state model, …
cmbr angular power spectrum
CMBR angular power spectrum

Dipole anisotropy

(Conklin, 1969)

cmbr anisotropy
CMBR Anisotropy

why transplanckian physics
Why Transplanckian Physics?
  • Standard BB cosmology presents some open issues:
  • The Flatness Problem
  • The Entropy Problem
  • The Horizon Problem
  • Structure formation + CMBR inhomogeneities
  • matter/antimatter asimmetry, dark matter, ...
workshop on transplanckian physics1

Workshop on Transplanckian Physics

Uppsala, 24-26 october 2002


U. DanielssonCan Planck see transplanck?

O. ElgaroeyNeutrino properties from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

M. GiovanniniThe pre-big bang scenario confronts observations

D. GrassoCosmology with gravitational wave detectors

F. Hassan1. Introduction to the Theory of Cosmological Perturbations2. Introduction to the Trans-Planckian Problem in Inflationary Cosmology

A. JokinenBaryogenesis through Affleck-Dine mechanism

N. KaloperInflation and Short-Distance Physics

E. K.VakkuriCosmological toy models in string theory

M. LaineHigher dimension induced domain wall defects in our world

J. NiemeyerModels and Signatures of Short Distance Physics in Inflation

S. RäsänenThe ekpyrotic scenario/cyclic model: status report

M. SlothTransplanckian effects in inflationary cosmology and the modified uncertainty principle

A. StarobinskyTrans-Planckian particle creation now and in the past

I. WehusScalar field potential in 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory

theories vs experiments 1
Theories vs Experiments (1)
  • Theories / Toy models:
    • Standard Big Bang Cosmology (starting point)
    • Inflation
    • Theory of Cosmological Perturbations
    • Pre-Big Bang scenario
    • Ekpyrotic scenario / cyclic model
    • ...
theories vs experiments 2
Theories vs Experiments (2)
  • Typical signatures
  • Look for theories with a ”good” footprint
  • Experiments:
    • Gravitational waves detectors
    • Supernova Project
    • CMBR survey
    • Neutrino studies
    • UHECR
    • PAMELA, ...
some formalism inflation

During inflation: a(t) ~ exp[H(t)·t]

Typical numbers: 60 e-foldings; 10-33sec (start:10-37 after BB)

Some formalism + Inflation

FRW line element:

Friedmann eq.

Einstein eq.

”These numbers are like George Bush military budget...”

theory of cosmological perturbations
Theory of Cosmological Perturbations
  • Standard Big Bang formalism & theory
  • Perturbation theory
  • Density inhomogeneities amplified by gravity (ex. / ~ 10-5 after 300000 yrs may explain structure formation)

Riotto, hep-ph/0210162

Inflation and the theory of cosmological perturbations

trans planckian problem in inflationary cosmology
Trans-planckian Problem in Inflationary Cosmology

In most current modelsof inflation, the periodof exponential expansion lastsso long that at the beginning of inflation, scales of cosmologicalinterest today had a physical wavelength muchsmaller than the Planck length, and the theories used tocompute the spectrum of fluctuations are known to breakdown on these scales.

the pre big bang scenario confronts observations
The pre-big bang scenario confronts observations

Massimo Giovannini,

University of Lausanne

Abstract: “The key features of the pre-big bang scenario will be presented in light of its possible phenomenological relevance. Recent developments will also be discussed with particular attention to possible implications for CMB physics and relic GW backgrounds. A personal view of the speaker on the future (possible) directions of this scenario will also be given.”

pre big bang scenario
Pre Big-bang Scenario


after BB


before BB

Figures from:

cosmology with gravitational wave detectors
Cosmology with gravitational wave detectors

Dario Grasso,

Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa

Abstract: “The new generation of gravitational waves detectors under construction/project may be able to detect stochastic backgrounds of cosmological origin. A short panoramic on the most promising sources and the characteristics of the expected signals will be given.”

gw production
GW Production
  • GW background from amplification of vacuum fluctuations
    • Standard inflation
    • Pre-Big Bang cosmology
    • Other models
  • Known astrophysical sources
  • Noise (unresolved astrophysical sources)
  • On Earth: Seismic noise
gw from a pre bb model
GW from a Pre-BB Model


ekpyrotic scenario
Ekpyrotic Scenario
  • One visible 3-D brane + one 3-D hidden brane in a 11-D space
  • Brane oscillations induce energy transfer (BB in our brane)
  • Old, new + cyclic scenario (all: 2001)

Figures from:

the stringy uncertainty principle

Classical uncertainty principle & commutation relation

Modified uncertainty principle

xp  ½

xp  ½( 1 + (p)² + ... )

[x, p] = i(1+p²)

[x, p] = i

The Stringy Uncertainty Principle

Hyphotesis: there is a minimum resolution xmin = ½

J. Niemeyer, Models and Signatures of short distance physics in inflation

M.Sloth, Transplanckian effects in inflationary cosmology and the modified uncertainty principle

sentences of the day

In case a singularity appears in the theory:

“...then a miracle occurs...”

Sentences of the Day

“If a matematician would look at what we are doing, he wouldn’t be happy!”

“They are never happy”