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Environmental analysis HSR Phase 2. Asplan Viak AS with subconsultants MISA VWI BREKKE & STRAND akustikk as. Task. Develop methods for assessment of: Landscape (AVAS) Intervention effects (natural environment, water resources) (AVAS) Noise (AVAS, Brekke & Strand akustikk)

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Environmental analysis HSR Phase 2

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environmental analysis hsr phase 2
EnvironmentalanalysisHSR Phase 2

AsplanViak AS withsubconsultants

  • MISA
  • VWI
  • BREKKE & STRAND akustikk as



Develop methods for assessment of:

  • Landscape (AVAS)
  • Intervention effects (natural environment, water resources) (AVAS)
  • Noise (AVAS, Brekke & Strand akustikk)
  • Energy (VWI)
  • Climate (MISA)

Main challenge: High level analysis at a large geographical scale with relevant documentation and advices for the project and later IA.


landscape study and intervention effects
Landscape study and Intervention effects

Legislative and Regulatory Framework; a selection:

  • European Conventions regarding landscape and biological diversity
  • The EU Water Framework Directive
    • implemented in Norway through Norwegian legislation
    • the main goal of the Water Framework Directive is to achieve a so-called “Good ecological standard” for the quality of surface water and groundwater.”
  • Water resources are regulated through e.g. ”Lov om vassdrag og grunnvann  (Vannressursloven)”
  • Norwegian Nature Diversity Act
  • Norwegian Planning and Buliding Act, and requirements for Impact Assessment at different planning stages
  • Regulations
  • Handbooks


landscape study and intervention effects1
Landscape study and Intervention effects

Approach to Method Development:

  • Review existing methods for analysis and assessment of landscape and environmental intervention effects, and
  • Identify aspects of existing methods which could be adapted for high level analysis at a large geographical scale.


landscape study and intervention effects2
Landscape study and Intervention effects

Scope of work:

  • Litterature study
  • Identification and review of digital datasets
  • Identification of existing value classification of datasets
  • Identification of need for supplementing information and the need for additional/ supporting data and qualitative assessments
  • Description of methodology and description of GIS-model


landscape study and intervention effects3
Landscape study and Intervention effects

Recommendations so far:

  • ”Wide” defenition of landscape also including visible cultural heritage
  • Inclusion of natural resources and outdoor activities despite this not being covered by JBVs initial scope of work
  • The proposed approach consists broadly of the following stages:
    • To describe the character of the area under each topic
    • To describe a value/ importance/ sensitivity to the characteristics of the area
    • To describe how proposals will impact on these characteristics
    • To derive an overall assessment score/ measure of conflict potential
    • Derived from : [TØI, 2000] Miljøhåndboken, Trafikk- og miljøtiltak i byer og tettsteder, [STATENS VEGVESEN 2010] Konseptvalgutredning Grenland. Vurdering av ikke-prissatte virkninger , [STATENS VEGVESEN 2008] Konseptvalgutredning E18 Langangen – Grimstad. Vurdering av ikke-prissatte virkninger


landscape study and intervention effects4
Landscape study and Intervention effects
  • GIS-model
  • Data unevenly



natural environment
Natural environment

Naturbase (DN) – important nature

Regionally collected

Classified according to national, regional or local interest/ level of protection


    • Limiting values LpAeq,T for the stationary noise of rolling stock: 68 dB for train sets
    • Starting noise for electric trainsets: Class 1/Class 2 = 85/82 dB
    • Pass-by noise has different limits at different speeds, se table below. Measured 25 m from centre of track, 3.5 m above ground in a non reflecting environment.

Practical situation: Limits are hard to achieve for rolling stock available today.


Findings from the NOEMIE project (NOise Emission Measurements for high speed Interoperability in Europe –EU)
  • The TSI noise emission limits are difficult to keep, current HS-TSI levels can be considered to be very demanding limits, however, trainsets have come on the market since then.
  • The combined roughness of rail and wheels is the dominant contribution to the track side noise emission up to train speeds of 300 kph.
  • First at speeds beyond 300 kph, the aerodynamic noise tends to dominate
  • A takeout from NOEMIE project is that Nordic noise calculation method is expected to be applicable for higher speeds than earlier envisioned.


a summary of pass by noise levels
A summary of pass-by noise levels

Results from NOEMIE project compared with TSI values

Results from new models of trainsets should be obtained and compared


important takeouts at this stage
Important takeouts at this stage:
  • Noise limits set in the TSI for rolling stockswill be difficult to achieve
  • Nordic noisecalculationmetodcanlikely be used for most practical cases up to 300 kphbaseduponcurrent findings
  • Around and beyond 300 kph, the nose ofthetrain, the first boggie and thepantographcreatesthemainnoisesourcesand thepantograph present a noisechallence at these speeds, especiallybecause it maycreatenoisewithsignificantcontentof ”sinusiodal” character, implying a + 5 dB more stringent noiserequirementaccording to T-1442
  • Vibrationsseemsmainly to followthesolutionsseen by ordinarytracks
  • Structuralnoisewill present a greaterchallengethantoday, especiallywherebuildingsarelocatedabove tunnel openings or close to the tunnel
  • Tunnels withirregularshape (”blasted tunnels”) have significantly less vibrational problems thanordinary, round tunnels.
  • Tunnels, tracks and power lines must be included in noiseassesment


energy consumption
Energy Consumption
  • Infrastructure scenarios
  • General and train specific technical data and assumptions
    • General assumptions
    • Train specific technical data
    • Efficiency degree of the tractive system
  • (Intermediate) Results
    • Passenger load factor effects
    • Gradient and permitted track velocity impact
    • Tunnel impact on specific energy consumption
    • „Straight but steep“ vs. „Flat but with a detour“
infrastructure scenarios
Infrastructure scenarios
  • Based on the attributes above, 1,650 different infrastructural combinations – and thus far too many – can be found. Passenger load factors included, the number rises to 9,900. Consequently, the calculations are limited to reasonable scenarios, only.
efficiency degree of the tractive system
Efficiency degree () of the tractive system
  • Efficiency Degree as a function of
  • Train Speed and Tractive/Braking Effort
motivation for assessment of climate related effects
Motivation for assessment of climate related effects
  • Is High Speed Rail an environmentally good solution, and for what time horizon?
  • Importance of infrastructure is often omitted in discussions of transport modes
  • Importance of infrastructure phase versus operation phase
  • HSR in Norwegian topography
    • More tunnels and bridges? What are the consequences?
    • Consequences of topography on operation?
  • Decision making support
    • Building module based system to assess various corridor characteristics – open sections, tunnels, bridges
  • Only climate related effects are considered in this part

Component-based emission inventories


Physical planning

Alternatives A-D

Road: car & bus

Market analysis

Alternatives A-D

High speed rail: A, B, C, D

Energy use data

Alternatives A-D


Demand for individual transport modes


Rolling stock


Open stretch



Materials, processing, energy, transport …

National emissions



Emissions abroad

Alt. 1

Emission profiles (to be made)

Alt. 2

Alt. 3

Time (year)

Time (year)