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Daniel Kollek, MD, CCFP(EM) Director, Centre for Excellence in Emergency Preparedness Chair – CAEP Disaster Committee Associate Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, McMaster University. Definitions, Classification and Response Structure. Introduction to Disasters. Disaster.

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introduction to disasters

Daniel Kollek, MD, CCFP(EM)

Director, Centre for Excellence in Emergency Preparedness

Chair – CAEP Disaster Committee

Associate Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine,

McMaster University

Definitions, Classification and Response Structure

Introduction to Disasters

disaster
Disaster
  • The Merriam-Webster dictionary definition of disaster is:"a sudden or great misfortune."
  • The Medical definition if a disaster is: "when the destructive effects of an event overwhelm the ability of a given area or community to meet the demand for health care."
natural events
Natural Events
  • Hurricane/Tornado
  • Severe Thunderstorm
  • Snowfall
  • Blizzard
  • Ice Storm
  • Earthquake
  • Tidal wave
  • Drought
  • Flood - external
  • Wild fire
  • Landslide
  • Volcano
  • Epidemic
  • Extreme temperature
technological events
Technological events
  • Fire alarm failure
  • Communications failure
  • Medical gas failure
  • Medical vacuum failure
  • Info. systems failure
  • Fire – internal
  • Flood – internal
  • Hazmat exposure – internal
  • Supply failure
  • Electrical failure
  • Generator failure
  • Transportation failure
  • Fuel Shortage
  • Natural gas failure
  • Water failure
  • Sewage failure
  • Steam failure
  • Structural damage
man made disasters
Man-made disasters

Anthrax envelope - 2001

human events
Human events
  • MCI – Trauma
  • MCI - Medical
  • MCI – Hazmat
  • Hazmat – external
  • Terrorism – chemical
  • Terrorism – biological
  • Terrorism - radiological
  • VIP situation
  • Infant abduction
  • Hostage situation
  • Civil disturbance
  • Labor action
  • Forensic admission
  • Bomb threat
for each event you must assess risk
For each event you must assess risk
  • What is the probability of occurrence?
  • What impact would it have?
  • What is your preparedness?

A formal risk assessment tool is available at www.ceep.ca

the patients
The Patients:

Tokyo Sarin attack 1995:

  • >5800 victims
  • 12 deaths
  • 17 critical patients
  • 37 severe patients
  • 984 moderate patients
  • 4793 “worried well”
the players
The Players:
  • Police
  • Fire
  • EMS
  • Hospitals
  • Volunteers
  • Public health
  • Elected officials
  • Civil servants
  • Utilities
  • Transit
  • Provincial / Federal agencies
  • Media
whatever the case

and despite the range of possible events,

disaster response has more commonality

than event specific characteristics.

Whatever the case,

what do you need in a disaster
What do you need in a disaster?
  • Information
  • Guidance
  • Money
  • Supplies
  • Equipment
  • Human Resources

and……

A system to deliver this to you in a useful fashion

ims incident management system
IMSIncident Management System

Incident Management System is

a method of coordinatingparts of one agency or many agencies in a

unified command structureto

use all available resources

in the effective and efficient response to an emergency.

slide30

The Eight Components

of Incident Command Systems

ims components
IMS - Components
  • A unified command structure
  • Common terminology
  • Modular organization
  • Integrated communication
  • Consolidated action plans
  • Manageable and sensible span of control
  • Designated facilities
  • Comprehensive resource management
incident commander
Incident Commander
  • Most senior trained responder
  • As incident develops, falls back to established command on-site
  • Eventually may fall to Senior Command off site (Emergency Operations Centre)
operations
Operations
  • Implements response activities as determined by Incident Manager
  • Maintains communication between Command and site
  • Requests and assigns resources as directed
logistics
Logistics
  • Support Operations
  • Allocate resources and provide all materials, equipment, and personnel required
  • Application of additional resources provided by Mutual Aid
planning
Planning
  • Control and flow of all information
  • Data collection, analysis and forecasting
  • Development of response and recovery objectives and strategies
  • Mutual Aid Requests
finance
Finance
  • Tracking of expenses
  • Funding
  • Government Financial Aid requests
  • Financial Aid distribution
ims components38
IMS - Components
  • A unified command structure
  • Common terminology
  • Modular organization
  • Integrated communication
  • Consolidated action plans
  • Manageable and sensible span of control
  • Designated facilities
  • Comprehensive resource management
slide43

Proposed Hospital IMS Structure For Ontario Hospitals

Legend:

The Colour Code Triage (Yellow, Red, Green, Black) is universally accepted and consistent with Triage Codes used by EMS in the field when addressing large scale emergencies

ims components44
IMS - Components
  • A unified command structure
  • Common terminology
  • Modular organization
  • Integrated communication
  • Consolidated action plans
  • Manageable and sensible span of control
  • Designated facilities
  • Comprehensive resource management
designated facilities
Designated Facilities
  • Emergency Operations Centre (EOC)
  • On-site Command Post
  • Staging Areas
  • Triage Area
  • Resource Storage
  • Morgue
slide46

Primary Response Command

(Initial Command Centre)

On-site Command

(Secondary)

EOC

Off-site Command

(Final)