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Avoiding Plagiarism the Easy Way. Research Rescue Lab Dr. Kelley Wood. Agenda. Why we should avoid plagiarism Review Elements of the parenthetical citation Elements of the references in the reference list Types of sources in the reference list Practical Exercises

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avoiding plagiarism the easy way

Avoiding Plagiarism the Easy Way

Research Rescue Lab

Dr. Kelley Wood

agenda
Agenda
  • Why we should avoid plagiarism
  • Review
    • Elements of the parenthetical citation
    • Elements of the references in the reference list
    • Types of sources in the reference list
  • Practical Exercises
    • The art of summarization
    • The art of paraphrasing
plagiarism why worry
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Scientific and social advances always come from standing on the shoulders of giants who came before (Kuhn, T., 1996)
  • All advances in knowledge are cumulative
  • All new knowledge or knowledge connections are dependent on what is already known
plagiarism why worry1
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • All research is designed to add to the accumulation of knowledge
  • Or to bring attention to and understanding of a gap in the accumulated knowledge
    • That gap might be a chasm, a canyon, or even a new universe
  • That is what a research problem is (Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., &Williams, J. M., 2008)!
plagiarism why worry2
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • To show we are properly grounded in our academic field
  • Or to show we have a proper grasp of the context of the research problem
  • We must make explicit our understanding of the current knowledge and dialogue in the academic field or the context of the problem
plagiarism why worry3
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • This requires us to acknowledge those who developed or created the knowledge we are using to support our logic for our research problem
plagiarism why worry4
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Scholarly authors are only paid for books or textbooks
    • These rates are very low unless they are very famous
  • Scholars are not paid for publishing journal articles
    • They receive credit, or goodwill
    • This may or may not assist them in receiving consideration for rank or tenure
plagiarism why worry5
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Why then do they do this?
    • To advance the accumulation of knowledge in their field
    • To fill in the gaps in that knowledge
    • Ok, some for rank and tenure
  • So it is very important to recognize these volunteers in the advancement of learning and knowledge
plagiarism why worry6
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • What then is plagiarism?
    • Plagiarism is the act of taking someone else’s ideas, words, research, or other intellectual or artistic work, and presenting them as if they were your own. Sometimes, identifying an act of plagiarism is easy (Trinity Washington University, 2012).
plagiarism why worry7
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • The following are all obvious instances of plagiarism:
    • Downloading or purchasing a paper from the internet;
    • Using whole paragraphs from a book, article, or online source without quotation marks and attribution;
    • Submitting a research report written by a friend as your own work;
    • Submitting as your own work a sculpture or a poem created by someone else (Trinity Washington University, 2012).
plagiarism why worry8
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Common Knowledge
    • Most universities, publishers, publishing manuals, and writing style guides allow you to not cite common knowledge
    • For academic, scholarly writing keep this to very simple constructs
      • Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address
      • Van Gogh was an impressionist
      • Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin framed the Constitution of the United States of America
plagiarism why worry9
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Common Knowledge
    • “Material is probably common knowledge if . . .
      • You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources
      • You think it is information that your readers will already know
      • You think a person could easily find the information with general reference sources (The Purdue Online Writing Lab, as cited in Trinity Washington University, 2012)”
plagiarism why worry10
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Common Knowledge
    • Most of what you reference to support your logic (argument) will be known in your academic field
    • However, this is specialized knowledge
      • you should cite the referenced works
    • Be safe, cite and reference!
plagiarism why worry11
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Self-plagiarism
    • Submitting to another work already published
      • This applies to academic assignments in particular
      • If you used a paper in one course and make a few minor alterations
        • This is plagiarism (see the ugly truth below)
plagiarism why worry12
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • Self-plagiarism
    • Previously published (submitted) work must undergo substantial revision
      • Materially extended
      • Must acknowledge previous work
        • That means cite and reference your previous work
plagiarism why worry13
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • The Ugly Truth
    • Graduate students found to have plagiarized are dismissed and are not readmitted
      • One strike and you are out
    • Faculty and Deans aware of plagiarism must forward the case to Academic Affairs and the Dean of Students
plagiarism why worry14
Plagiarism: Why Worry?
  • The Ugly Truth
    • Undergraduate students found to have plagiarized are:
      • First offense – fail course
      • Second offense – fail entire semester
      • Third offense – dismissed
      • Seniors - dismissed
    • Faculty and Deans aware of plagiarism must forward the case to Academic Affairs and the Dean of Students
avoiding plagiarism
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Properly format, cite, and reference all quotations
    • Less than 40 words
      • In line quote
      • Quotation marks
      • Parenthetical citation
avoiding plagiarism1
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Properly format, cite, and reference all quotations
    • 40 words or more
      • Block quote
      • Indented
      • No quotation marks
      • Parenthetical citation
avoiding plagiarism2
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Be careful not to allow the authors and works you reference speak for you
  • When to quote
    • When the author is an acknowledged expert you may not be able to restate their intent better than they can
    • Material must be understood explicitly
      • A theory or model
      • Legislation or policy
avoiding plagiarism3
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Be careful not to allow the authors and works you reference speak for you
  • For the most part you should always paraphrase or summarize
    • That is what is expected especially in a literature review
    • The literature review is your summarization of the materials referenced
avoiding plagiarism4
Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Paraphrase or summarize works
    • Paraphrasing
      • Restate what you learned from the works referenced in your own words
    • Summarization
      • Greatly reduced, condensed, and concise restatement of the referenced works
    • Use parenthetical citations
    • Provide complete references in the reference list
nest steps
Nest Steps?
  • Review
    • Elements of the parenthetical citation
    • Elements of the references in the reference list
    • Types of sources in the reference list
  • Practice
    • The art of paraphrasing
    • The art of summarization
citation elements
Citation Elements
  • Chapter 6, APA Publication Manual, 6th Ed.
  • Citations elements are often in parentheses
    • All or part
    • The elements must be present in the sentence
      • Not the paragraph!
  • Basics
    • Author, date, page
citation elements1
Citation Elements
  • Always include:
    • Author(s) or Agency (organization)
    • Date the work was published
  • As required
    • Page number(s), or
    • No pagination?
      • paragraph number(s), and or section heading
citation elements2
Citation Elements
  • Examples
    • Prehistoric humans often associated events with no known cause…(Kessler, 2009).
    • Kessler (2009) asserts…
    • Kessler (2009) defined Mystification Theory as a process of attribution of natural events to greater forces or greater beings (pp. 64-73).
    • Kessler (2009) theorized the process of attribution consists of three phases, acknowledgement, deification, and reaction (p.67), which must occur in sequential order.
reference elements
Reference Elements
  • References versus Bibliography
    • Bibliographies can contain works that influence you but are not directly referenced in the text
    • Reference lists only include materials directly referenced in the text
      • If you cite it put it in the references
      • If it is in the reference list it must be cited!
reference elements1
Reference Elements
  • Chapters 6 – 7, APA Publication Manual, 6th Ed.
  • APA References
    • Variations in the elements, style, and order depending on the type of source
      • Periodicals (journals)
      • Books
      • Reports
      • Meetings
      • Dissertations and theses
      • Etcetera…
reference elements2
Reference Elements
  • APA References
    • Journal article
    • Author. (Date). Article title: Subtitle, Journal Title, volume(issue), pages.

Adams, S. (2004). Employer-provided health insurance and job change. Contemporary Economic Policy, 22(3), 357-369.

reference elements3
Reference Elements
  • APA References
  • Online sources
    • Adams, S. (2004). Employer-provided health insurance and job change. Contemporary Economic Policy, 22(3), 357-369. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.761.143
    • Adams, S. (2004). Employer-provided health insurance and job change. Contemporary Economic Policy, (22)3, 357-369. Retrieved from the Proquest ABI/Inform database (Accession No. 200010185)
    • Adams, S. (2004). Employer-provided health insurance and job change. Contemporary Economic Policy, (22)3, 357-369. Retrieved from http://www.webpage.com
  • Note these are scholarly sources
reference elements4
Reference Elements
  • APA References
  • Book
    • Author. (Date). Book Title, City, ST: Publisher

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

reference elements5
Reference Elements
  • APA References
  • Book chapter or section
    • Author. (Date). Chapter or section title. In Editor (Ed.) Book Title. City, ST: Publisher

Creswell, J. W. (2009). The purpose statement. In Creswell, J. W. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Eisenhardt, K. (2009) Agency theory: An assessment and review. In Tosi, H. L. (Ed.) Theories of Organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

summarizing
Summarizing
  • Similar to paraphrasing
    • More concise (brief)
    • Less personalized
    • Not evaluated
    • Use a reporting style

“Just the facts Ma’am,” Joe Friday, Dragnet TV Series

  • See the Handout from the University of Fraser Valley
paraphrasing
Paraphrasing
  • Restating in your own words the content of another written work
    • More personalized than a summarization
    • It provides more thick description and discussion than a summary
paraphrasing and summarizing
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • Quick start paraphrasing or summarizing
    • Read and Reread to understand the original as a whole
    • List the key elements (concepts, theories, elements of the passage or text)
      • Write them in your own words (academic not colloquial)
    • Arrange those elements into a narrative list
      • Think of the story they can tell
    • Use this as an outline to rewrite in your own words
paraphrasing and summarizing1
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • Use your own words
    • No rearranging of the original text
    • No changing a few words of the original text
    • No stitching together passages of multiple texts
paraphrasing and summarizing2
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • Once you have it in your own words
    • Look for some more refined or academic words to make the passage less colloquial and more academic
    • Be sparing since it is easy to over do
references
References
  • American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Ed. Washington, DC: Author.
  • Antioch University (2012). The art of paraphrasing. Antioch University Virtual Writing Center. Yellow Springs, OH: Author
  • Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., and Williams, J. M. (2008). The craft of research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • OWL at Purdue. (2012) Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Online Writing Lab, Purdue Univeristy. Retrieved at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/
  • Trinity Washington University (2012). Handbook: Academic Honesty, Plagiarism, and the Honor System. Author. Retrieved from http://www.trinitydc.edu/policies/plagiarism/
  • University of Fraser Valley (2012). Summarizing a scholarly journal article. University of Fraser Valley Writing Centre. Fraser Valley, BC: Author