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Avoiding Plagiarism :. Modified APA style of referencing…. Mrs. McGowan, Teacher-Librarian (2011) Adapted from Ms. E. Hansen, QE (2006) Adapted from Ms. M. Mirka, Centennial (2004). Do you know…. What is Plagiarism ? What is an in-text Citation ? What is a reference list ?

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avoiding plagiarism

Avoiding Plagiarism:

Modified APA style of referencing…

Mrs. McGowan, Teacher-Librarian (2011)

Adapted from Ms. E. Hansen, QE (2006)

Adapted from Ms. M. Mirka, Centennial (2004)

do you know
Do you know…
  • What is Plagiarism?
  • What is an in-text Citation?
  • What is a reference list?
  • What does paraphrasing mean?
getting started
Getting Started…
  • What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism means using another’s work without giving them credit and saying that it is your own

From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

examples of plagiarism
Examples of Plagiarism…
  • Copying and pasting text from online encyclopedias
  • Copying and pasting text from any web site
  • Using photographs, video or audio without permission or acknowledgement
  • Using another student’s or your parents’ work and claiming it as your own even with permission
  • Using your own work without properly citing it!

From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

more examples of plagiarism
More Examples of Plagiarism…
  • Quoting a source without using quotation marks-even if you do cite it
  • Citing sources you didn’t use
  • Getting a research paper, story, poem, or article off the Internet
  • Turning in the same paper for more than one class without the permission of both teachers (this is called self-plagiarism)
  • Can you think of more?

From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

how to avoid plagiarism
How to Avoid Plagiarism…
  • Use your own words and ideas
  • Alwaysgive credit to the source where you have received your information
  • If you use someone’s exact words - put them in quotes and give credit using in-text citations. Include the source in your references

From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

how to avoid plagiarism8
How to Avoid Plagiarism…
  • If you have paraphrased someone’s work, (summarizing a passage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words)-always give credit
  • Take very good notes--write down the source as you are taking notes. Do not wait until later to try and retrieve the original source
  • Avoid using someone else’s work with minor “cosmetic” changes

From: Mirka, 2004, The Plagiarism Trap. Powerpoint Presentation

getting started9
Getting Started…
  • What is a reference list?
    • A reference list at the end of a paper provides the full information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. It cites works that specifically support a particular article.
    • References should be alphabetically listed by author’s last name at the end of the paper or presentation.
  • A bibliography?
    • A bibliography cites works for background or for further reading.
getting started10
Getting Started…
  • What is a Citation?
    • References and citations in text are the formal methods of acknowledging the use of a creator’s work.
  • An In-Text Citation?
    • Direct citations and quotations are acknowledged in the body of a research assignment.

(Right in the sentence or paragraph)

how does plagiarism affect you
How does plagiarism affect you??

WHAT happens if you plagiarize?

  • In junior/senior high school?
  • In post-secondary?
  • In society?
special consideration the internet
Special Consideration: The INTERNET
  • Special recognition needs to be given to the Internet as a source of information. Due to the transient nature of information on the Internet, you may choose to keep a copy (either paper or electronic) of the website used.


  • Internet sites must be evaluated very carefully for reliability, as all sources are not authoritativeor trustworthy.
    • Who wrote it? What’s the source? Contact info?
    • Is the info accurate? Appropriate? Reliable?
    • When was the information last updated?
    • Does it agree with other credible sources?
    • Do the links work? Is it well laid out? Easy to navigate?
citations in text


In text citationsidentify the source of a quotation or a personal communication used in research. Format like this (author’s last name, publication date, and page number p. or pp.). 12 3

Citations within the writing (paragraph) are quick and limited in information.

Citations point you to the full information on a back References page.

  • Purpose
  • Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, the source must be credited.
  • In text citations refer the reader to a References page. The reader then knows where the information came from.


  • Citations are included in the same sentence or paragraph as the quotation.
  • The sentence and the citation together must provide the author’s last name, publication date andpage(s) from which the quotation was taken.

In Text Format for Poetry

  • For poetry, include line numbers at the end of a quote (Jones, l. 5) or (Stevens, ll. 2-18).
  • Once you know the source, just use line numbers (l. 18).
  • One line? – work the line into a sentence, & use “quote marks” (l. 7).
  • Two or three lines? – separate each line with a slash / to indicate the end of the lines. Use quotation marks.
  • Four lines or longer? – set the quote apart, and block indent. Do not use quotation marks. (ll. 12 – 20)


  • Quotation marks “”enclose quotations of less than 40 words and are included in the sentence or text, then the citation.
  • Quotations of more than 40 words are indented five spaces from the left margin and are double-spacedin a free-standing block(example later). They are also known as a Block Quotation.
  • Just before the long quotation starts, type a colon: then indent your long quotation (block quotation). (then your citation after the period)
  • Brackets( ) enclose information about the source of the quotation(this is the citation).

Quotation Examples…

  • less than 40 words:
  • He confirms our suspicions. “Because N-Gen children are born with technology, they assimilate it. Adultsmust accommodate – a different and much more difficult learning process”_(Tapscott, 1998, p. 40). (Punctuation is only after in-text citation.)
quotation examples
Quotation Examples…

2. more than forty words (Block Quotation):

  • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(2010) explains how to avoidplagiarism:
        • Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source of the text..(p.15)(Punctuation at end of quote, before the citation.)
citation example 1
Citation Example 1

He states, “anything takes on a new meaning when we think of it as a monument”(Boorstin, 1987, p. 215) and adds that monuments can be both man-made and natural.

Note punctuation

What makes this sentence elegant or unique?

The sentence has both a direct quotation and a paraphrase!

citation example 2
Citation Example 2
  • Johnston and Cutchins(1988) state that “life is hard for animal babies of all kinds, but for young reptiles, surviving their first year is especially difficult” (p. 36).
  • To put two authors in the brackets, you must use the ampersand “&” symbol. (Johnston &Cutchins, 1988, p. 36)
  • For more than 3 authors, you may use the Latin phrase “et al” which means “and the rest” (Abrams, et al, 2010, p. 345)
personal communications
Personal Communications

Personal communications include e-mail letters, telephone conversations, interviews, etc.

They arementioned in the body of a paper only, as they are not locatable.

They are cited (see below), but NEVER included in your reference list, because a reader cannot refer to or locate them later.

Author Martine Bates (personal communication, January 25, 2011) is excited about Marwen’s latestadventures and hopes her readers are too.

citing electronic sources internet online communities etc
Citing Electronic Sources(Internet, Online Communities, etc)

For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers:

Use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the paragraph symbol ¶ or the abbreviation para.

If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material (APA, 2010, Section 7.11).

(Myers, 2008, ¶ 5)(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

(APA Style, 2005, para. 3)

citing internet sources or sources with no author
Citing Internet Sources or Sources with No Author

Many times, you will encounter and need to cite a resource that does not have an author. It might be a Corporation. We are used to doing citations using the author’s last name. However, this is not always possible.

REFERENCE LISTING of resources that do not have authors:

No Author

Sports nutrition: Nutrition science & the Olympics. (2008). Retrieved from http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/nutrition/default.htm

Corporate Author

Centre for Systems Science at Simon Fraser University. [Image]. (2009). Great Canadian scientists. Retrieved from http://fas.sfu.ca/css/gcs/main.html

Romeo and Juliet [CD-ROM]. (1997). New York: Columbia.

**Use the first few words of the title or corporate author if no author’s name is given


Many people feel that eating healthy foods can help your performance playing sports: “It is a proven fact that eating a nutritious meal prior to a game will increase performance” (Sports Nutrition, 1998).

frequently asked questions

Why use the American Psychological Association (APA) format regarding references?

It is very widely recognized and an authoritative source for references and citations in research work. APA is frequently used in local universities. It is not the only form.

What other forms are there?

MLA, Turabian, Chicago – Use what the instructor asks!

APA Website

University of Calgary

Son of Citation Machine



  • Go to the back of your document, and on a SEPARATE piece of paper…
  • Centre the word “References” (not bolded) at the top of the page.
  • Give the full information on how to access your sources, in alphabetic order, (sort↓) and a hanging indent.
  • Double-space the whole page.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

APA Style.Org (2005). Electronic references: Citations in text of electronic material. Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/electext.html

Calgary Board of Education. (2000). References and citations in text: Formats for student research. Retrieved from http://www.cbe.ab.ca/sss/ssspdf/ref-citations-05-00.pdf

bibliography suggested for further information or investigation
Bibliography(suggested for further information or investigation)

American Psychological Association. (2010). American Psychological Association Psych Net. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html

Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.uvim/edu/~ncrane/estyles


For Better or For Worse – Lynn Johnston

Source: http://www.fborfw.com/strip_fix/archives/000809.php