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Deep Ocean

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  1. Deep Ocean

  2. Deep Ocean • <1% of deep sea has been explored • Most exploration in the past 35 years depth 700 m

  3. Deep Ocean It’s weird down here: http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2009/02/awesome-octopi-cephalopods-from-outer.html http://www.naturalsciences.org/education/deepsea/images/ http://www.mbari.org/news/homepage/2007/deepchange-scotoplanes-350.jpg http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/img/environment/bigisopod.jpg http://img.geo.de/div/image/59517/langnasenchimaere-popup.jpg

  4. Deep Ocean Then it gets even weirder when things seep out of the ocean floor... http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/endeavour/photo_e.htm

  5. Hydrothermal Vents

  6. Hydrothermal Vents • Extreme conditions near vents: • High temperature • High chemical concentrations • High acidity • Bacteria, archaea live closest to vents (up to 121°C!)

  7. Hydrothermal Vents • Chemosynthesis – energy from chemicals, not the sun • Chemosynthetic bacteria, archaea: • Outside on rocks • Inside some animals (tube worms, mussels, clams) http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/E84896E2-2F7E-4D2A-9D46-366B50558303/87497/p5365dop.jpg http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ncs/photos/grazers.jpg

  8. Hydrothermal Vents • An oasis of warmth and food http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/endeavour/photo_e.htm http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20061007/a7741_2279.jpg

  9. Cold Seeps • Hydrogen sulfide • Methane, oil, mud volcanos • Brine http://aphriza.files.wordpress.com/2006/07/methane_seep.jpg

  10. Cold Seeps Methane gas plume from mud volcano Oil droplets on orange methane hydrate NOAA NOAA Methane bubbles http://people.whitman.edu/~yancey/methaneventHR.jpg

  11. Cold Seeps • Methane seep communities • Chemosynthetic bacteria, archaea • Outside on rocks • Inside some animals (worms, clams) Frozen methane hydrate with polychaete “ice worms” http://people.whitman.edu/%7Eyancey/whitemat.jpg http://webmineral.com/specimens/Methanehydrate.jpg

  12. Cold Seeps • Methane seep communities http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030102 http://people.whitman.edu/~yancey/snailtowers.jpg

  13. Cold Seeps • Brine pools: • Gulf of Mexico was shallow sea that dried up in Jurassic period • Thick layer of salts covered with sediment when seawater returned • Salt seeps up through cracks in sediment NOAA

  14. Cold Seeps • Brine pools: • Underwater lakes of super salty water • Methane gases also seep out depth 700 m NOAA

  15. Cold Seeps • Chemosynthetic bacteria in mussels • An oasis of food NOAA