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Business Data Communications. 7/e, John Wiley & Sons 2002, FitzGerald and Dennis 4/e, Prentice Hall 2001, William Stallings. Organization of the Textbook (FD). Part 1: Introduction (Ch1) Part 2: Fundamentals (Ch2-5) Part 3: Networking (Ch6-9) Part 4: Network management (Ch10-12)

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business data communications

Business Data Communications

7/e, John Wiley & Sons 2002, FitzGerald and Dennis

4/e, Prentice Hall 2001,

William Stallings

organization of the textbook fd
Organization of the Textbook (FD)
  • Part 1: Introduction (Ch1)
  • Part 2: Fundamentals (Ch2-5)
  • Part 3: Networking (Ch6-9)
  • Part 4: Network management (Ch10-12)

Chapter 11 will not be covered

organization of the textbook ws
Organization of the Textbook (WS)
  • Part 1: Requirements (Ch2-3)
  • Part 2: TCP/IP and The Internet (ch4-5)
  • Part 3: Data Communications (Ch6-10)
  • Part 4: Networking (Ch11-15)
  • Part 5: Applications (Ch16-17)
  • Part 6: Management Issues (Ch18-20)
discussion
Discussion
  • Why is it important to study data communication?
  • What is the definition of data communication?
  • Do you know the following figures:
    • the fastest CPU available on the market
    • the highest bandwidth of the Internet backbone
    • the number of ISPs in the US
  • What is the trend of data communications?
semiconductor industry the foundation of it
Semiconductor Industry – the foundation of IT
  • Vacuum tube – Early the 20th century (?)
  • Transistor (Transfer resistor), 1947 at Bell Lab invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and Willian Shockley (Physics Nobel prize winner in 1956)
  • Integrated circuit, invented by Jack Kilby, TI, in 1959 (Physics Nobel prize winner in 2000)
moore s law
Moore’s Law
  • When: 1965
  • Who: Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel.

Dr. Moore was preparing a speech and made a memorable observation. When he started to graph data about the growth in memory chip performance, he realized there was a striking trend.

  • What: Each new chip contained roughly twice as much capacity as its predecessor, and each chip was released within 18-24 months of the previous chip.
  • An Analogy: If this trend were applicable to airline industry, the plane would cost $500, weigh a few pounds, travel around the world in 20 minutes.
analyses
Analyses
  • Moore’s minimum cost
    • 1962 – 12 components/chip
    • 1965 – 50 components/chip
    • 1970 – 10% of the cost in 1965 per transistor
    • 1975 – 65,000 components/chip
  • The speed growth is faster than size reduction, because there has been a rapid increase in clock frequency.
  • Kuzweil (1999) pointed out that the doubling of processing power started earlier:
    • 1908 (Hollerith Tabulator)
    • 1911 (Monroe Calculator)
    • 1946 (ENIAC)
    • 1951 (Univac I)
    • 1959 (IBM 7090)
moore s law cont d
Moore’s Law (Cont’d)
  • Moore's observation, now known as Moore's Law, described a trend that has continued and is still remarkably accurate. It is the basis for many planners' performance forecasts. In 26 years the number of transistors on a chip has increased more than 3,200 times, from 2,300 on the 4004 in 1971 to 7.5 million on the Pentium II processor.
  • Machrone’s Law:the machine you want always costs $5,000
  • Rock’s Law: the cost of capital equipment to build semiconductors will double every four years
questions from moore s law
Questions from Moore’s Law
  • What are implications of Moore’s law to the information age?
  • Will Moore’s law hit the wall eventually?
  • What are its implications to recent economy downturn?
  • Any impact on data communication technologies?
  • How does it affect your career?
data communications
Data Communications

Definitions:

  • Data Communications

The movement of computer information from one point to another by means of electrical or optical transmission systems. (How about satellite system?)

Such systems are often called data communications networks.

  • Telecommunications

Includes the transmission of voice and video as well as data.

data communications1
Data Communications
  • Another vision of information forms (VIViD):
    • Voice communications
    • Image communications
    • Video communications
    • Data communications (limited to text)
components of a network
Components of a Network
  • Server (or Host computer)

Central computer in the network, storing data or software that can be accessed by the clients.

  • Client

The input/output hardware device at the other end

of a communications circuit.

  • Circuit

The pathway through which the messages travel.

  • Peer-to-peer networks

Do not need a server or host, but are designed to connect similar computers which share their data and software with each other.

types of networks
Types of Networks

Networks can be classified in many different ways. One of the most common is by geographic scope:

  • Local Area Networks (LAN)
  • Backbone Networks (BNs)
  • Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
  • Wide Area Networks (WANs)
types of networks2
Types of Networks
  • Local Area Networks (LAN)

A group of microcomputers or other workstation devices located in the same general area and connected by a common circuit.

Covers a clearly defined small area, such as within or between a few buildings,

Support data rates of 10 to 100 million bits per second (Mbps).

types of networks3
Types of Networks
  • Backbone Network (BN)

A larger, central network connecting several LANs, other BNs, metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks.

Typically span up to several miles.

Support data rates from 64 Kbps to 45 Mbps.

types of networks4
Types of Networks
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Connects LANs and BNs located in different areas to each other and to wide area networks.

Typically span from 3 - 30 miles.

Supports data rates of 100 to 1000 Mbps.

types of networks5
Types of Networks
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)

Connects BNs and MANs and are usually leased from inter-exchange carriers.

Typically span hundreds or thousands of miles.

Supports data rates of 28.8 Kbps to 2 Gbps.

network model
Network Model

A method of describing and analyzing data communications networks, by breaking the entire set of communications functions into a series of layers, each of which can be defined separately.

This allows vendors to develop software and hardware to provide the functions separately.

open systems interconnection osi
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
  • Developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984
  • The primary architectural model for intercomputer communications.
  • A conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions.
  • Describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer.
iso s osi model
ISO’s OSI Model

OSI has 7 layers:

  • Application layer
  • Presentation layer
  • Session layer
  • Transport layer
  • Network layer
  • Data link layer
  • Physical layer
osi model
OSI Model

F-D’s Model

Internet Model

OSI Model

Application layer:

http, telnet, snmp,

smtp, nfs, ftp

Application

layer

TCP, UDP

Network

layer

IPv4, IPv6

Data Link layer

Data Link Layer

(HDLC)

Physical layer

Physical layer

osi model1
OSI Model
  • Network layer
    • provides routing and related functions
  • Transport layer
    • implements reliable internetwork data transport services
  • Session layer
    • establishes, manages and terminates communication sessions between presentation layer entities
  • Presentation layer
    • provides a variety of coding and conversion functions
  • Application layer
    • closest to the end user
slide27

Sender

Receiver

Application

Layer

Application

Layer

HTTP

Request

HTTP

Request

Transport

Layer

Transport

Layer

TCP

HTTP

Request

TCP

HTTP

Request

Network

Layer

Network

Layer

IP

TCP

HTTP

Request

IP

TCP

HTTP

Request

Data Link

Layer

Data Link

Layer

Ethernet

IP

TCP

HTTP

Request

Ethernet

IP

TCP

HTTP

Request

Physical

Layer

Physical

Layer

slide28

Telephone and Access Technologies

One-car garage

Speck of

Dust

Grain of

Sand

Pea

Ping Pong Ball

Basketball

1980

Modem

300 bps

1990

Modem

9600 bps

2000

Modem

56 Kbps

2000

DSL

1.5 Mbps

2003

Wireless

40 Mbps

2007

Wireless

10 Gbps

LAN and Backbone Technologies

Note to illustrator:

please draw real

pictures for these items

and partial pictures for

the garage, and

skyscraper

Beach Ball

One-car garage

Baseball

Ping Pong Ball

Sugar Cube

1980

128 Kbps

1990

1-4 Mbps

2000

Desktop

10 Mbps

2000

Backbone

100 Mbps

2005

Backbone

10 Gbps

WAN and Internet Technologies

50 Story

Skyscraper

Bicycle Tire

Football

Ping Pong Ball

Pea

1980

56 Kbps

1990

1.5 Mbps

2000

Typical

45 Mbps

2000

High Speed

622 Mbps

2005

High Speed

25 Tbps

Figure 1-6 Relative capacities of telephone, LAN/BN and WAN/Internet Circuits

before next class meeting
Before Next Class Meeting
  • Think of the following questions:
    • How do you define the Internet?
    • What are intranet and extranet?
    • What are the most popular Internet applications?
    • What is e-commerce?
    • How data communications play roles in e-commerce?
    • How do you explain current economic conditions?