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Business Data Communications. Chapter Eleven Trends in Business Data Communications. Primary Learning Objectives. Understand the elements of convergence Define unified messaging Identify three leading wireless implementations Describe IPv6 Name four emerging career areas.

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business data communications

Business Data Communications

Chapter Eleven

Trends in

Business Data Communications

primary learning objectives
Primary Learning Objectives
  • Understand the elements of convergence
  • Define unified messaging
  • Identify three leading wireless implementations
  • Describe IPv6
  • Name four emerging career areas
elements of convergence
Elements of Convergence
  • Convergence:
    • The integration of data, voice, audio, and video
    • Carried seamlessly over the same infrastructure
    • Available from any location
    • Accessible from many types of devices
    • Compatible with many types of software platforms
    • Based on world-wide standards
    • Resulting in pervasive computing
elements of convergence1
Elements of Convergence

Pervasive computing implies a technology so widely accepted and commonly used as to be an every day aspect of life, such as driving a car, using a telephone, or listening to the radio

elements of convergence2
Elements of Convergence
  • SOAP – Small Personal Object Technology
  • SIP – Session Initiation Protocol
  • IM – Instant messaging
  • XML – Extensible Markup Language
    • SAML – Security Assertion Markup Language
    • XMPP – Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
unified messaging
Unified Messaging
  • A possible next “killer application”
  • Is structured to deliver multiple message systems into one common inbox
  • Allows for multiple message systems access from one common portal
  • Is intended to simplify complex message systems delivery into a single, integrated system:
    • Fax
    • Land phone
    • Cell phone
    • E-mail
    • Web browser
unified messaging1
Unified Messaging
  • Can be tied or associated with database technology
  • Provides for speech-to-text capability
  • Provides for text-to-speech capability
  • Is designed to accommodate different communication technologies, using different media, and different devices
  • Must be flexible enough to accommodate traditional services, such as PBX implementations
wireless implementations
Wireless Implementations
  • Are another possible next “killer application”
  • Will be essential if applications such as IM and UM are to meet their promise
  • Must address concerns related to security, bandwidth, and standardization
  • Range from global, to local, to personal:
    • 3G
    • 802.11
    • Bluetooth
wireless implementations 3g global
Wireless Implementations – 3G, Global
  • Third generation wireless:
    • Evolved from 1G and 2G
    • Designed to support traditional as well as multimedia forms of data
    • Provides for wide-area mobile communications using a worldwide standard: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
    • Is a broadband, packet-based wireless transmission
    • Provides for three types of data rates
wireless implementations 3g global1
Wireless Implementations – 3G, Global
  • Data rates:
    • 144 Kbps for automotive
    • 384 Kbps for pedestrian
    • 2 Mbps for interior
  • Is capable of:
    • Fixed and variable rate bit traffic
    • Bandwidth on demand
    • Multimedia mail storage and forwarding
  • Allows for various billing methods including:
    • Pay-per-bit
    • Fixed flat rate
wireless implementations 802 11 local
Wireless Implementations – 802.11, Local
  • An umbrella standard of the IEEE containing, from oldest to newest:
    • 802.11b
    • 802.11a
    • 802.11g
  • Positioned as a wireless LAN solution
  • Referred to as Wi-Fi, for wireless fidelity
wireless implementations 802 11 local1
Wireless Implementations – 802.11, Local
  • 802.11b
    • The oldest of the 802.11 protocols
    • Operates in the 2.4 GHz range
    • Provides for three non-overlapping channels
    • Supports a maximum throughput of 11 Mbps per channel
    • Has a range of 328 feet
    • Is not compatible with 802.11a
    • Is compatible with 802.11g
    • Generally less expensive than 802.11a and 802.11g
wireless implementations 802 11 local2
Wireless Implementations – 802.11, Local
  • 802.11a
    • Developed after 802.11b, even though it has an “a” designation
    • Operates in the 5 GHz range
    • Provides for twelve non-overlapping channels
    • Supports a maximum throughput of 54 Mbps per channel
    • Has a range of 80 feet
    • Is not compatible with 802.11b
    • Is not compatible with 802.11g
    • Is generally more expensive than 802.11b but less expensive than 802.11g
wireless implementations 802 11 local3
Wireless Implementations – 802.11, Local
  • 802.11g
    • The latest of the 802.11 group
    • Operates in the 2.4 GHz range
    • Provides for three non-overlapping channels
    • Supports a maximum throughput of 54 Mbps per channel
    • Has a range of 328 feet
    • Is compatible with 802.11b
    • Is not compatible with 802.11a
    • Is generally more expensive than either 802.11b or 802.11a
wireless implementations 802 11 local4
Wireless Implementations – 802.11, Local
  • Is associated with:
    • WAP – Wireless Application Protocol
      • An application environment for mobile devices
      • A platform-independent open standard
      • Utilizes WML, Wireless Markup Language
    • WEP – Wired Equivalent Protocol
      • Intended as a wireless security solution
      • In practice, has proven easy to hack into
    • 802.11i, a new IEEE wireless security protocol that addresses the weak security issues related to WEP
    • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), a wireless security protocol sponsored by Microsoft, Intel, Cisco, and Apple, also in response to WEP’s weaknesses
wireless implementations bluetooth personal
Wireless Implementations – Bluetooth, Personal
  • Creates a personal area network (PAN)
  • Uses low-power radio transmissions
  • Transmits at 1 Mbps
  • Uses frequency hopping at 1,600 hops per second for security
  • Particularly associated with such devices as scanners, cameras, keyboards, mice, printers, etc.
  • Intended for wireless communication among devices in close proximity – less than a 1,000 feet
wireless implementations1
Wireless Implementations
  • Hot spots:
    • Locations where roaming users find wireless access for Internet connectivity
    • Generally requires users to pay a small fee
    • Can be “sniffed” out, or in many cases located on the WWW
  • War driving
    • Associated with hackers in vehicles sniffing out wireless access points for unauthorized network penetration
  • Will gradually replace IPv4
  • Is also called IPng for Internetworking Protocol, next generation
  • Provides for 128 bit addressing, referred to as hexadecimal colon notation
    • DA3F:38C7:1934:EC8B:5671:0000:A690:21ED
  • Allows for three addressing types:
    • Unicast
      • Includes the Unspecified and Loopback addresses
    • Multicast
      • Requires subscription
    • Anycast
      • For packets with the same header prefix
  • Defines a packet with three potential components:
    • A required header, fixed at 40 bytes
    • An optional extension header
    • The message, or payload
  • By design provides for and incorporates:
    • Prioritization of packets
    • Handling for multimedia types of data
    • Encryption
    • Authentication
    • Significant flexibility in addressing design
  • Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6:
    • Dual stack
      • Devices run both protocol stacks
    • Tunneling:
      • Intended for two IPv6 devices that must communicate through an IPv4 network
      • Can be automatic or configured
        • For configured tunneling a router is the likely mechanism for protocol translation
    • Header Translation
      • Intended for IPv6 packets traveling through an IPv6 network, but the receiver is ultimately an IPv4 device
careers in data communications
Careers in Data Communications
  • The traditional job ladder:
    • Entry-level: help desk, PC technician, network technician assistant
    • 2nd-level: network technician, typically sent out in the field to maintain, configure, and troubleshoot client devices and also assist end-users
    • 3rd-level: network architect/designer, helps the business to design local networking solutions
    • 4th-level: network administration, managing a staff with departmental responsibilities, usually at a functional level
    • 5th-level: upper management, assisting the business in planning its strategic direction and how to meet those goals
careers in data communications1
Careers in Data Communications
  • Research shows a direct relationship between formal education level achieved and potential income earned
    • The more you learn, the more you earn!
  • Popular career certifications, one means of demonstrating technical mastery, include:
    • A+ Comptia - Vendor Neutral
    • Network+ Comptia - Vendor Neutral
    • CCNA and CCNP Cisco
    • MCP and MCSE Microsoft
    • CNA and CNE Novell
emerging careers in data communications
Emerging Careers in Data Communications
  • Predicted emerging career fields include:
    • XML designers
    • Security specialists
    • Wireless technologists
    • IPv6 professionals
  • Each of the technologies we have covered in this text (LANs, BNs, MANs, and WANs) has a host of career opportunities and specializations
in summary
In Summary
  • Pervasive computing is transforming what is meant by data communications
  • Emerging applications include IM and UM
  • Wireless technologies are poised for wide-scale implementation
  • IPv6 will gradually replace IPv4
  • Your career is waiting for you
    • Good Luck!