The Progressive Era1890s-1920s • period of social activism and political reform • Muckraker: • sensational headlines and lurid stories • continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting which emerged in the US after 1900 and continued to be influential until WWI • Used a combination of advertising boycotts, dirty tricks, and patriotism • Emergence of radio and movies as new forms of media and entertainment.
Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hVNE0gc2MyY
Fireside Chats • Roosevelt was innovative in his communication to the public – he used ‘fireside chats’ on the radio as a way to get his message to the people.
News Correspondents • 1938 – Murrow's Broadcast From Vienna: On March 13, 1938, Murrow and William Shirer reported for CBS on the German annexation of Austria as the Nazi army marched in. The broadcast is significant because it marks both the beginning of the use of broadcast news correspondents and the first part of Hitler's plans for world domination.
News Reels Newsreels' Heyday: The newsreel first appeared in 1910, and soon they showed before the main feature in more than 15,000 U.S. theatres each week. Relying on music scores and staged re-creations of events, newsreels were the dramatic predecessors of television news. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ic9bVEzoqk
TV & Radio • With the popularity of television, older sources of information had to adapt to a new audience. • Radio changed programming to a mix of music, news, sports and weather. • Popular disc jockeys, such as Freed of Cleveland and Dewey Phillips of Memphis, achieved celebrity status by playing rock 'n' roll. • Magazines learned to find specialized audiences and men and women's magazines dictated social culture for their readers.
Political Ads on TV • Television was seen as a powerful medium in which to sell everything from headache medicine to a president. • President Eisenhower hired Rosser Reeves, a successful advertising executive for his 1952 campaign.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2K8Q3cqGs7I Walter Cronkite announcing the death of President Kennedy. Breaking News
Changing Public Opinion • By the 1960s, it had become practical to get fresh images of events from abroad onto the news every evening. • The broadcast of disturbing footage from Vietnam on television gave the public a taste of the horrors of war, and swayed public opinion. • The press's focus on Vietnam eventually brought the Johnson administration to its knees.
Political Ads on TV / Antiwar http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1968/vietnam "Television is no gimmick, and nobody will ever be elected to major office again without presenting themselves well on it." -Television producer and Nixon campaign consultant Roger Ailes, 1968
July 20, 1969 53 million households, or over 93%, tuned in to watch this mission on TV, and over 125 million viewers watched the moon landing. This broke the previous record of the most viewers, and launched the Apollo 11 coverage to be the most watched TV programming up to that date. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sJv5_y2l5as (7:00) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQDjy2csPP0&feature=related (2:30) Milestone Moments Watched by Millions
The 1970s also gave birth to mainstream computers. In 1977, American students Stephen P. Jobs and Stephen G. Wozniak founded the Apple Computer Co. and introduced the Apple II personal computer. The Apple II was much less expensive than computers up to that time and sold successfully for business and even some home use. Apple II became first mass-market PC. IBM joined the field in 1981. Bill Gates and Paul Allen started Microsoft to develop software for the fledgling "Altair 8800" personal computer. Computers
http://ehub.journalism.ku.edu/history/1970/multimedia/video/70sAgnewAttack.movhttp://ehub.journalism.ku.edu/history/1970/multimedia/video/70sAgnewAttack.mov A cultural change in the U.S. was reflected in the new manner in which media institutions reported on government officials. In the wake of the Watergate scandal, the American public was left with suspicion of motives for both the government and media. People grow skeptical
New technologies such as cable television, led to expansion and the creation of new networks such as CNN and Fox. The "Big Three," CBS, ABC, and NBC, were forced to reckon with these newcomers and fierce competitions ensued. Advances in Television
MTV aired the first music video in August 1981, with "Video Killed the Radio Star” by the Buggles. MTV showed music videos non-stop, 24-hours-a-day, every day, with occasional breaks for rock news, commercials and special programming. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiJ9AnNz47Y (1:42) MTV
Commissioned by the Govt. in the 60’s Went world wide in the 80’s Commercialized in the 90’s As of 2011, 2.1 billion people use the internet Internet!
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • Cornell students created it. It combined a web site for each user that could be personalized, chatrooms and messaging in 1994. • TheGlobe.com went public on November 13, 1998, posting the largest first-day gain of any IPO in history to that date, 606% over the initial share price. • It failed to generate significant advertising revenue, however, and the founders were forced out in 2000. • After limping along for years it officially died in 2008.Lifetime: 14 years
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • Although AOL Instant Messenger boosted the popularity of instant messages, its success was predated by ICQ, a free IM software from the Israeli company Mirabilis, founded in 1996. AIM followed in May 1997, and AOL later acquired ICQ. You can still download ICQ today. Lifetime: 15 years and counting
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media History • GeoCities, 1994, provided customizable "home pages" for anyone who wanted them, and was probably one of the first major purveyors of user-created content. Individuals and businesses flocked to upload contact information and photos via its easy-to-use interface. • Although GeoCities' custom designs were famously amateurish and loud, it bore a striking resemblance to MySpace. • GeoCities was ultimately acquired by Yahoo! and then closed in 2009. Its main competitor was Angelfire, founded in 1996, which still exists.
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • 1997: SixDegrees.com predated Friendster, Facebook, MySpace, Linkedin, etc. by inventing the social network via a series of contact lists through which one communicated with friends. Users were given bulletin boards, e-mail and online messaging if they agreed to hand over a list e-mail addresses for 10 friends. It closed in 2001.
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • Online diary keeping began in earnest with the debut of LiveJournal, the first of many sites to popularize blogging. • Lifetime: 12 years and counting
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • Friendster achieved what SixDegrees.com failed to do, which was to become popular through users' overt collecting of "friends." Although it attracted millions of users it was quickly eclipsed by the advent of Facebook in 2004. The site officially closed and deleted its users' accounts in May 2011, vowing to reopen as an Asia-focused gaming web site.
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • 2003: Yet another attempt to give users custom homepages, messaging and photo-sharing, MySpace peaked in July 2005 when it was sold to News Corp. for $580 million. • MySpace's cluttered pages, which often blared the user's favorite music, became a favorite of teens and the bands they followed. • It began to lose users when the simpler, easier-to-use Facebook came along. • Lifetime: 8 years and counting
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • 2004: Founded in a Harvard dormroom by Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook now has more than 750 million users. More importantly, it has seen off the competition and continues to grow. • Facebook is deceptively simple to use, but has allowed so many different companies to promote ad-on apps that it can be customized in almost infinite ways. • The company is expected to go public in 2012. • Lifetime: 7 years and counting
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • At base, Twitter is just another blogging platform. Its genius lies in the realization that a lot of people want to keep some sort of blog but are either bad at writing or don't want to write at length. • The 140-character limit on each tweet also imposes a charming discipline on its users. The very first tweet (left) was published March 6, 2006. The service has more than 200 million users. • Lifetime: 5 years and counting
10 Key Turning Points in Social Media HistorySince the Advent of the Internet • 2007: Sure, there were smartphones that allowed people to update their various social media apps prior to the iPhone, but the Apple device made it easier and more fun. It is not a coincidence that social media has exploded following the rise of iPhone and Android smartphones. Prior to this year, "social" media often felt anti-social to use: to experience it, you had to be sitting at a desk or a laptop, and therefore often alone. Now people can share, message and update each other no matter where they are.Lifetime: 4 years and counting
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muckraker • http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505123_162-42750171/the-10-key-turning-points-in-the-history-of-social-media/?tag=contentMain;contentBody • http://ehub.journalism.ku.edu/history/1960/1960.html • http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/