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River Systems

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  1. River Systems chapter 15 Holt

  2. 1. The continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the land and oceans and back to the atmosphere is called the water cycle. • 2. A region’s water budget is affected by temperature, vegetation, wind, and the amount and duration of rainfall. • 3. The availability of fresh water can be enhanced through conservation efforts. • Water cycle, 375 • Evapotranspiration, 376 • Condensation, 376 • Precipitation, 376 • Desalination, 378

  3. 4. A river system is made of a main stream and feeder streams, called tributaries. • 5. A watershed is the area of land that is drained by a river system. • 6. The erosive ability of a river is affected by stream load, stream discharge, and stream gradient. • 7. A bend in a low-gradient stream or river is called a meander. • 8. A river that is composed of multiple channels that divide and rejoin around sediment bars is called a braided stream. • Tributary, 379 • watershed, 379 • stream load, 380 • discharge, 380 • Gradient, 380 • meander, 381 • braided stream, 382

  4. 9. Where a stream slows significantly, it can deposit its stream load to form deltas and alluvial fans. • 10. In floodplains, flooding commonly brings in new, rich soil for farming but can cause property damage. • 11. Floods can be controlled through forest and soil conservation and by building structures such as levees and dams. • delta, 383 • Alluvial fan, 383 • Floodplain, 384