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Chapter 16: Paraphilias and Sexual Variants. For use with Human Sexuality Today (4 th Ed.) Bruce King Slides prepared by: Traci Craig. Chapter Overview. Bestiality & Zoophilia Pedophilia Sadomasochism Other Paraphilias Multiple Paraphilias Causes of Paraphilias.

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chapter 16 paraphilias and sexual variants

Chapter 16: Paraphilias and Sexual Variants

For use with Human Sexuality Today (4th Ed.)

Bruce King

Slides prepared by: Traci Craig

chapter overview
Chapter Overview

Bestiality & Zoophilia



Other Paraphilias

Multiple Paraphilias

Causes of Paraphilias

  • Historical Perspectives
  • Fetishism
  • Transvestism
  • Exhibitionism
  • Obscene Phone Calls
  • Voyeurism
historical perspectives
Historical Perspectives
  • 11th centuryany non-missionary position, bestiality, masturbation, and sodomy were all unnatural acts.
  • Victorian eramasturbation was self-abuse
  • Freudanything that took precedence over vaginal intercourse was deviant
deviance vs perversion
Deviance vs. Perversion
  • Deviance is a problem of control (e.g., rape)
  • Perversion is a problem of desire
  • Behaviors changemove from deviance to perversion to normal
  • Paraphilia—sexual arousal and gratification depend almost exclusively on the behavior or thinking about the behavior.
sexual variants
Sexual Variants
  • Behaviors or thoughts about behaviors that are not the ‘only’ way that that a person can achieve sexual arousal or gratification.
  • Some are harmful others are harmless to the self.
  • Privacy and legality should be considered.
  • Paraphilias detract from the ability to form and maintain relationships with others.
  • Erotic fetishism: arousal exclusively by handling or fantasizing about an inanimate object or part of the body.
  • Panties, stockings, shoes, boots, hair, leather/rubber/latex, feet.
  • Mostly men. Starts around 16. At the extreme the partner is unnecessary.
  • Classical conditioning, operant conditioning reinforcement during masturbation.
  • Dressing as a member of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal/gratification.
  • Cross-dressing not transvestism.
  • 1% of men, mostly heterosexual men, private, partners tolerate at best.
  • Starts before puberty
  • Escaping masculinity, fantasy of self as female, associations, other explanations.
  • Exposing one’s genitals to unsuspecting strangers for sexual arousal/gratification.
  • Not streaking or mooning, but compulsive.
  • Almost all men, start in mid-teens or 20s
  • Feel inadequate, insecure, fear rejection, problems with close relationships.
  • Seeking victim’s disgust, shock, fear reaction.
  • 1/3 of sexual offenders are caught for indecent exposure.
obscene phone calls
Obscene Phone Calls
  • Telephone scatologia: seeking disgust, shock, fear, and control.
  • Want anonymity
  • Angry towards women, phone provides safe distance, avoids intimacy
  • 1 million calls per year reported in the US
  • Rarely approach or molest victims.
  • Often someone you know, hang up without reaction.
  • 33% of men and 16% of women find watching others do sexual things appealingnot voyeurism
  • Repeatedly seeking sexual arousal by observing people undressing or nude without their consent or knowledge.
  • Aroused by risk of discovery.
  • Mostly men beginning before age 15.
  • Masturbates while watching.
bestiality and zoophilia
Bestiality and Zoophilia
  • Bestiality—sexual contact with an animal.
  • Men farm animals; womenhousehold pets
  • Men penetrate, women have the animal lick their genitals or masturbate the animal.
  • Usually a one time event during adolescence
  • Zoophiliabestiality is preferred means of arousal. Often a sign of sever psychological problems.
  • Adult’s sexual arousal depends primarily or exclusively on sex with children.
  • Legal age of consent varies (14-18)
  • Defined as younger than 13 (prepubescent)
  • Serious harm to the victims who suffer emotional and psychological (and sometimes physical) problems.
sadomasochism s m
Sadomasochism (S&M)
  • Sadism—inflicting pain on others for arousal
  • Masochism—arousal by experiencing pain
  • Mild forms very common—bitten, slapped (on the buttocks), pinched, scratched, pinned down.
  • Paraphilia only when it is the ‘preferred’ means of arousal.
  • Severe casesBundy, Dahmer, Gacy
  • Sadism is less common than Masochism
  • Most experiences in that are not clinical cases are more about control not pain.
    • Domination and Submission
    • With limits, control, roles in scenarios, with trusted willing partners
    • Pain is symbolic
  • More men than women, well-educated, successful, prominent people, reverse role held in ‘real’ life.
other paraphilias
Other Paraphilias
  • Urophiliacs—aroused by urination
  • Coprophiliacs—aroused by excrement
  • Mysophilia—aroused by filth
  • Klismaphilia—aroused by receiving an enema (more women)
  • Frotteurism—rubbing one’s genitals against other people in public while clothed (crowded places)
other paraphilias16
Other Paraphilias
  • Autoerotic asphyxiation—deprivation of oxygen when aroused to intensify orgasm.
    • Very dangerous—deaths in young men masturbating alone.
  • Necrophilia—arousal by having sex with dead bodies
    • Severely emotionally disturbed, also sadists
    • Seek work in morgues or mortuaries
multiple paraphilias
Multiple Paraphilias
  • Many individuals have more than one paraphilia
  • Some cluster together
    • Courtship disordersvoyeurism, exhibitionism, frotteurism
  • Most sex offenders have 3-4
  • Developed interests/fantasies by 12 or 13
what causes paraphilias
What causes Paraphilias?
  • Freudianarrested psychosexual development
  • Learning theoristslearned assocations
  • But why mostly men?
  • Definitions depend on societal climate
    • Women in men’s clothesacceptable
    • Women who expose themselvessexy
what causes paraphilias19
What causes Paraphilias?
  • 90,000 arrests for sexual offenses (not rape or prostitution) 90% men
  • Most have problems with intimacy and anger at women.
  • Conventional sexual relationships are too complex and threatening.
  • Social systems perspectiveensure against rejection, men maintain dominance
  • Psychotherapy or Group Therapy
    • Become aware of feelings
    • Confrontational approaches
  • Behavioral approaches
    • Aversion therapy
    • Orgasmic reconditioning
  • Desensitization to ‘normal’ relationships
  • Social skills training
    • Coping with rejection
  • Also treated for hypersexuality
  • Individual must want to change.
  • Medical approaches reduce sex drive
    • Surgical castration
    • Antiandrogen drugs
    • Serotonin regulators
  • Social Systems Perspective
    • Change societal expectancies about men controlling womenshould lead to sharp decline in paraphilias.