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What Were You Thinking? A Learning Styles Workshop. Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP Executive Director, Applestar Productions. Today’s Roadmap. What are learning styles? Determine your style: MBTI Model Other Models Implications. Kaleidoscope of Theories.

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what were you thinking a learning styles workshop

What Were You Thinking?A Learning Styles Workshop

Jean Marrapodi, PhD, CPLP

Executive Director, Applestar Productions

today s roadmap
Today’s Roadmap
  • What are learning styles?
  • Determine your style: MBTI Model
  • Other Models
  • Implications
kaleidoscope of theories
Kaleidoscope of Theories
  • Learning styles research began in 1960s
  • By 2006 over 650 books published on learning styles
  • Over 4500 articles in scholarly publications
  • 26,000 websites
so many words
So Many Words!
  • convergers versus divergers
  • verbalisers versus imagers
  • holists versus serialists
  • deep versus surface learning
  • activists versus reflectors
  • pragmatists versus theorists
  • adaptors versus innovators
  • assimilators versus explorers
  • field dependent versus field independent
  • globalists versus analysts
  • assimilators versus accommodators
  • imaginative versus analytic learners
  • non-committers versus plungers
  • common-sense versus dynamic learners
  • concrete versus abstract learners
  • random versus sequential learners
  • initiators versus reasoners
  • intuitionists versus analysts
  • extroverts versus introverts
  • sensing versus intuition
  • thinking versus feeling
  • judging versus perceiving
  • left brainers versus right brainers
  • meaning-directed versus undirected
  • theorists versus humanitarians
  • activists versus theorists
  • pragmatists versus reflectors
  • organisers versus innovators
  • lefts/analytics/inductives/successive processors versus rights/globals/deductives/
  • simultaneous processors
  • executive, hierarchic, conservative versus legislative,
  • anarchic, liberal
different ways of measurement
Different Ways of Measurement

Learning Style

Cognitive Style

Learning Preferences

Learning Aptitudes

Learning Strategy

myers briggs type indicator
Myers Briggs Type Indicator
  • Rooted in psychology of Carl Jung
  • Adapted by Isabel Myers Briggs in 1940’s
  • Focus on 4 areas of perceiving and judging
  • Strong implications for learning
myers briggs
Myers Briggs

Four Rating Scales

  • Extravert/Intravert E/N
  • Sensing/Intuitive S/I
  • Feeling/Thinking F/T
  • Judging/Perceiving J/P
slide10

1

S

N

Myers Briggs Type Table: Sensing/Intuitive

sensing intuitive
Sensing/Intuitive

Intuitive

Uses senses

25%

75%

Gaining Information/Perceiving

sensing intuitive1
Sensing/Intuitive
  • Learn new things by imitation and observation
  • Value solid, recognizable methodsachieved in step-by-step manner
  • Focus on actual experience
  • Tend to be specific and literal; give detailed descriptions
  • Behave practically
  • Rely on past experiences
  • Likes predictable relationships
  • Appreciate standard ways to solve problems
  • Methodical
  • Value realism and common sense
  • Learn new things through general concepts
  • Value different or unusual methods achieved via inspiration
  • Focus on possibilities
  • Tend to be general and figurative use metaphors and analogies
  • Behave imaginatively
  • Rely on hunches
  • Value change in relationships
  • Use new and different ways to solve problems and reach solutions
  • Leap around in a roundabout way
  • Value imagination and innovation

Sensing

Intuitive

slide14

I

2

E

Myers Briggs Type Table: Introverted/Extraverted

extravert introvert
Extravert/Introvert

Introvert

Extravert

51%

49%

Receives energy externally or internally

extravert introvert1
Extravert/Introvert
  • Tolerate noise and crowds
  • Talk more than listen
  • Communicate with enthusiasm.
  • Be distracted easily
  • Meet people readily and participate in many activities 
  • Blurt things out w/o thinking
  • Parties recharge your batteries
  • Hates to do nothing. On the go 
  • Likes working or talking in  groups
  • Likes to be center of attention
  • Avoid crowds and seek quiet
  • Listen more than talk
  • Keep enthusiasm to self
  • Concentrate well
  • Proceed cautiously in meeting people participate in selected activities
  • Think carefully before speaking
  • Time alone recharges batteries
  • Needs to have time to reflect
  • Would prefer to socialize in small groups or just do job "by myself"
  • Content being on the sidelines

Extravert

Introvert

e i manifestations
E/I Manifestations

http://www.rbdc.com/~patmarr

COPYRIGHT ©1996-1999  PAT MARR

slide18

1

2

Myers Briggs Type Table: I/E and S/N

slide19

3

3

F

T

T

Myers Briggs Type Table: Thinking/Feeling

feeling thinking
Feeling/Thinking

Thinking

Feeling

50%

50%

Emotions

Logic

Making decisions

feeling thinking1
Feeling/Thinking
  • Have harmony as a goal
  • Decide more with my heart
  • Agree more with others' findings, because people are worth listening to
  • Notice when people need support
  • Choose tactfulness over truthfulness
  • Deal with people compassionately
  • Expect the world to recognize individual differences
  • Note how an option has value and how it affects people
  • Like to please others; show appreciation
  • Appreciate frequent queries as to my emotional state
  • ANY feeling is valid
  • Question others' findings because they might be wrong
  • Notice ineffective reasoning
  • Choose truthfulness over tactfulness’
  • Deal with people firmly, as needed  
  • Expect world to run on logical principles
  • Note pros & cons of each option
  • See others' flaws...critical
  • Tolerate occasional queries as to my emotional state in relationships
  • Feelings are valid if they're logical

Feeling

Thinking

slide22

1

3

3

2

Myers Briggs Type Table: I/E, S/N and T/F

slide23

J

J

P

4

4

Myers Briggs Type Table: Judging/Perceiving

judging perceiving
Judging/Perceiving

Perceive

Judging

Making Decisions

judging perceiving1
Judging/Perceiving
  • Prefer my life to be decisive imposing my will on it
  • Prefer knowing what they're getting themselves into
  • Feel better after making decisions
  • Enjoy finishing things
  • Work for a settled life, with my plans in order
  • Dislike surprises & want advance warning
  • See time as a finite resource, and take deadlines seriously
  • Like checking off "to do" list
  • Feel better with things planned
  • Settled.  Organized.
  • Like adapting to new situations
  • Prefer to keep things open
  • Enjoy starting things
  • Keep my life as flexible as so nothing is missed
  • Enjoy surprises and like adapting to last minute changes
  • See time as a renewable resource and see deadlines as elastic
  • Ignore "to do" list even if made one
  • Would rather do whatever comes along
  • Tentative.  Flexible.  Spontaneous.

Judging

Perceiving

perceivers resist closure
Perceivers Resist Closure

http://www.rbdc.com/~patmarr

COPYRIGHT ©1996-1999  PAT MARR

learning style model vakt
Learning Style Model: VAKT
  • Visual
    • Seeing: Text, Charts, Diagrams, Pictures
  • Auditory
    • Hearing: Audio, Music, Speaking
  • Kinesthetic
    • Bodily Action: Movement
  • Tactile
    • Touching: Doing with the hand
kolb learning style model

Direct Experience

Reflective Observation

Active Experimentation

Processing Information

Receiving Information

Abstract Concept

Kolb Learning Style Model
intersection learning style

Concrete Experience

Reflective Observation

Active Experimentation

Abstract Concept

Intersection=Learning Style

Concrete Active

Activists

Accommodating

Concrete Reflective

Reflectors

Diverging

Abstract Active

Pragmatists

Converging

Abstract Reflective

Theorists

Assimilating

gregoric learning style model

Concrete

Random

Sequential

Organizing Information

Perceiving Information

Abstract

Gregoric Learning Style Model

Concrete Sequential

Concrete Random

Abstract Sequential

Abstract Random

left brain right brain
Left Brain/Right Brain

Learners also favor one side of the brain over another.

Left BrainRight Brain

logical creative

verbal spatial

analytical intuitive

learning orientations
Learning Orientations

Work of Margaret Martinez

  • Resistant
  • Conforming
  • Performing
  • Transforming
slide36

Learning Preferences

ResistantLearners

  • TransformingLearners
  • PerformingLearners
  • ConformingLearners

Teacher Led

Independent

myers briggs type indicator1

51%

Extravert

49%

Introvert

Sensing

75%

25%

Intuitive

Feeling

50%

50%

Thinking

Judging

50%

Perceiving

50%

Myers Briggs Type Indicator
at risk college students

51%

Extravert

49%

Introvert

Sensing

75%

25%

Intuitive

At Risk College Students

61, 60, 53 and 53 %

Remedial Reading Program

80, 73, 88, and 59%

Remedial Reading Program

other stats
Other Stats
  • Snowman 50% of students in adult literacy class were ESF, 72% were SF
  • Alternative high schools are “over-represented with extraverted perceiver (EP) students
  • Sensing students perform poorest on reading comprehension tests
  • Sensing students define reading as a bottom up process (sequential, details)
other stats1
Other Stats
  • Introverted Intuitives (IN) tend to do better on reading tests
  • Intuitives over-represented in gifted programs
  • Intuitives define reading as a top down process (sampling, selection and guessing for comprehension)
so what
So What?
  • Students who understand themselves tend to learn better and can accommodate for their styles
  • Teach to experiences of the senses to build in the sensory preference for receiving information
  • Allow students to talk out their thoughts to allow for the Extraverted preference