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Vitamins in Ruminants. Vitamins. Organic compounds required in trace amounts for biological processes Vital amine Fat soluble A, D, E, and K Absorbed with lipids Water soluble C, B family. Vitamins. Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble

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vitamins
Vitamins
  • Organic compounds required in trace amounts for biological processes
  • Vital amine
  • Fat soluble
    • A, D, E, and K
    • Absorbed with lipids
  • Water soluble
    • C, B family
vitamins3
Vitamins
  • Fat soluble
    • Vitamins A, D, E and K
  • Water soluble
    • Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine,
    • pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid,
    • vitamin B12, vitamin C, choline
    • Water soluble vitamins and vitamin K synthesized in the rumen or in body tissues
    • Dietary requirements: Vitamins A, D, and E
vitamin nutrition of ruminants
Vitamin Nutrition of Ruminants
  • Important
  • Some vitamins must be supplemented in the diet
  • Several aspects of vitamin nutrition unique to
  • ruminants
  • 3. Likely will be more important:
    • As productivity of ruminants is increased
    • With increased confinement of animals
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Dairy NRC 2001
  • Chapter 6 Beef NRC 1996
vitamin requirements of ruminants
Vitamin Requirements of Ruminants
  • Ruminants require the same vitamins
  • as monogastric animals at cell level
  • Prior to rumen development young ruminants
  • require dietary sources of vitamins
    • Colostrum and milk
    • Concentration of vitamins in colostrum is greater
  • than in milk
  • Calves need to be fed vitamins if they are being fed
  • milk replacers with nonmilk protein
vitamin requirements of ruminants6
Vitamin Requirements of Ruminants
  • Mature ruminants have dietary requirement for:
    • Vitamins A, D, and E
      • Vitamin D in feed or from UV exposure
  • B vitamins usually not supplemented in ruminant diets
    • High producing dairy cows sometimes benefit
    • from supplementation with B vitamins
    • Mixtures of biotin, niacin, riboflaven, panothenic
    • acid, thiamin, and B12
inadequate dietary vitamin intakes
Inadequate Dietary Vitamin Intakes
  • Low concentrations in feeds
    • Harvesting and agronomic effects
  • Processing and storage effects
    • Humidity, heat, light, pH, minerals, pelleting
  • Reduced feed intake
  • Bioavailability
    • B-vitamins affected more than fat soluble
  • Level of production
    • Increased grain intake, increased feed intake,
    • increased rate of passage, reduced rumen function
  • Rearing in confinement out of sunlight
  • Stress and disease
    • Decreased feed intake, increased requirement
factors influencing vitamin stability
Factors Influencing Vitamin Stability

+ = stable - = unstable ( ) = tocopheryl acetate

circumstances affecting vitamin nutrition
Circumstances Affecting Vitamin Nutrition
  • Vitamin antagonists of importance to ruminants
  • Dicumarin (Dicumarol)
    • Found in moldy sweet clover - Blocks the action
  • of vitamin K (Depresses formation of thrombin)
  • Animals can bleed internally
  • Rancid fats
    • Destroys vitamins A, D, and E
  • Thiamin antagonists
    • Thiaminase - may develop in the rumen
    • Amprolium blocks absorption
    • Sulfur may destroy thiamin in the rumen
vitamin a retinol
Vitamin A (Retinol)
  • Vitamin of most practical importance in ruminant feeds.
    • Deficiency most likely:
      • High concentrate feeds (low forage)
      • Large amounts of fermented feeds
      • Mature - drought pastures
      • Long stored feeds
        • Sunlight, air, high temperatures
      • Heavily processed feeds
  • Some destruction of vitamin A in the rumen
    • Increases when concentrates are fed
    • Forage diets 20% Grain diets up to 70%
carotene
-Carotene
  • Provitamin A found in many plants
    • Mostly in the vegetative parts of plants
    • Decreases as plants mature
    • Decreases with time in storage
    • Some destruction in the rumen (0 to 35%)
    • Converted to retinol by enzymes in intestinal
    • mucosal cells
    • Some absorption of -carotene
  • Ruminants do not efficiently convert carotene
  • to vitamin A
    • 1 mg carotene = 400 IU vitamin A
vitamin a
Vitamin A
  • Deficiency
    • Reduced feed intake - slow growth
    • Rough hair coat
    • Edema of joints and brisket
    • Watery eyes
    • Night blindness
      • Retinol needed for synthesis of rhodopsin
    • Low conception
    • Still births
    • Function of immune system
vitamin a14
Vitamin A
  • Functions
    • Normal night vision
    • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/rhodopsin.html
vitamin a15
Vitamin A
  • Requirements
    • Cattle IU/kg feed DM
      • Growing 2,200
      • Pregnant beef cows 2,800
      • Pregnant dairy cows 4,000
      • Lactating cows 3,900
    • Sheep
      • Growing lambs 1,500
      • Gestating ewes 3,300
      • Lactating ewes 2,700
vitamin a16
Vitamin A
  • Requirements
    • Dairy cattle
    • Growing: 80 IU/kg body wt
      • Adult: 110 IU/kg body wt
  • Supplemental Vitamin A (retinol)
    • 1 IU of Vit A activity =
      • 0.344 ug of all-trans retinyl acetate
      • 0.550 ug all-trans retinyl palmitate
vitamin a when to supplement
Vitamin A – When to Supplement?
  • Carotene content of feeds is variable and usually
  • unknown
    • Cost of supplemental vitamin A is low – so usually
    • should supplement
      • Exception is animals grazing green forages
      • Should be consuming adequate carotene
  • Increased exposure to infectious pathogens
  • Times when immunocompetence may be reduced
vitamin a reserves in the body
Vitamin A Reserves in the Body
  • Vitamin A stored in the liver when intake of
  • vitamin A or carotene is high
  • Vitamin A in the liver has about 4 week
  • half life
  • Should not depend on more that 2 to 4
  • months of protection from storage of
  • vitamin A in the liver
  • Ruminants have a high tolerance for
  • vitamin A Will tolerate 66,000 IU/kg feed
vitamin d
Vitamin D
  • Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) - found in plants
  • Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - found in animals
  • Photochemical conversion in skin:
      • 7-dehydrocholesterol Cholecalciferol
  • Liver (Sequesters Vit D3)
  • Vit D3 25-hydroxy-vit D3
    • Circulating form of Vit D3
    • Blood concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vit D3
  • indication of vitamin D status of the animal
  • Kindney
  • 25-hydroxy-vit D3 1, 25-dihydroxy-vit D3
    • Active form of vitamin D
    • Active on skeleton and intestine
    • Potentiates action of parathyroid hormone
vitamin d 3
Vitamin D3
  • Low blood Ca (or P) increases parathyroid hormone
  • secretion
    • Parathyroid hormone increases production of
      • 1,25-dihydroxy-vit D3 in kidney
      • Increases resorption of bone Ca and P
  • Involved in:
    • Absorption of Ca and P and mobilization of Ca
    • and P from bone
    • Regulation of blood Ca and P
    • Immune cell function
    • Reproduction of males and females
vitamin d ruminants
Vitamin D - Ruminants
  • Deficiency
    • Rickets in calves
    • Swollen and stiff joints
    • Reduced feed intake
    • Tetany
    • Weak bones
  • Vitamin D can be toxic
    • High blood Ca
    • Calcification of soft tissues
    • Loss of appetite
  • Vitamin D not stored in the body in any quantity
vitamin d requirements
Vitamin D - Requirements
  • Requirement IU/kg Feed DM
  • All beef cattle 275
  • Growing lambs 185
  • Gestating ewes 216
  • Lactating ewes 148
  • Lactating dairy 30 IU/kg body wt
  • Dry pregnant cows 30 IU/kg body wt
    • Generally recognized as more than required
  • Animals fed sun cured hays and/or kept in sunlight have limited needs for supplemental vitamin D
  • Dairy NRC does not give credit to feed and sunlight
  • as sources of vitamin D
vitamin d toxicity
Vitamin D Toxicity
  • Safe feeding levels:
    • A few days - 25,000 IU/kg feed
    • 60 days - 2,200 IU/kg feed
  • Toxicity
    • Loss of appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Reduced rumination
    • Depression
    • Widespread calcification of soft tissue
      • Kidneys, heart, pancreas, lymph glands, lung alveoli
    • Inflammation
    • Demineralization of skeletal system
feeding mega doses of vitamin d
Feeding Mega Doses of Vitamin D
  • Prevent milk fever
  • 20 million IU/d starting 3 to 5 days before calving
  • continuing through the fist day postpartum
  • Improve tenderness of beef
  • Assumption:
    • Increased blood and muscle Ca increases
    • activity of calpains, enzymes in muscle
    • that degrade muscle myofibrils
  • Observations:
    • Blood Ca increased
    • Increased degradation of myofibrils
    • Reduced force to shear muscle
vitamin e
Vitamin E
  • -tocopherol is the most common form of
  • vitamin E in feeds
    • Vit E content of feeds is highly variable
    • Vit E decreases in forages with drying and storage
      • Most fresh forages excellent source of Vit E
    • Most grains have low concentrations of Vit E
    • Heat treatment destroys most of the Vit E
  • Supplemental form of vitamin E is DL- -tocopherol
    • The esterified form is more stable than the alcohol
    • Rumen metabolism is minimal
    • 1 IU = 1 mg DL- -tocopherol
vitamin e28
Vitamin E
  • Functions as an antioxidant and involved in
    • Maintenance of cell membranes
    • Immunity
    • Reproduction
  • Deficiency
    • White muscle disease
    • Weak muscles
    • Retained placenta
    • Reduced reproduction
    • Reduced disease resistance
  • Toxicity not demonstrated in ruminants
  • Vitamin E not extensively stored in the body
vitamin e dairy 2001
Vitamin E - Dairy - 2001
  • 1. Dry cows 60 days before calving
    • 80 IU/kg feed DM
    • Based on reduction of mastitis and immune function
    • Higher amounts needed for fetus and to increase
    • concentration in colostrum
  • 2. Lactating cows
    • 20 IU/kg feed DM
  • Needs to be increased when poor quality
  • forage is fed or if feeds have low Se content
    • Supplement Se if low in soils
      • 3 to 5 mg /d for dry cows
      • 6 to 8 mg/d for lactating cows
vitamin e beef sheep
Vitamin E - Beef & Sheep
  • Requirement IU/kg feed DM
    • All beef cattle 15 to 60
    • Pregnant and lactating cows 20
    • Growing heifers 25
    • All sheep 15
  • Related to adequacy of selenium
  • Vitamin E not transferred across placenta to fetus
    • Dependent on colostrum for dietary source
  • Feedlot cattle
    • Feed 500 IU/day for 100 days.
    • Extend shelf life of beef cuts in the sales case
vitamin k
Vitamin K
  • Vitamin K is a generic term describing a group
  • of quinone compounds
    • Phylloquinone (vitamin K1)
      • Found in chloroplasts of plants
    • Menaquinone (vitamin K2)
      • Synthesized by rumen bacteria
    • Menadione (vitamin K3)
      • Synthetic form used for supplementing vit K
vitamin k32
Vitamin K
  • Required for synthesis of four blood clotting factors
    • Prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X
    • Involved in blood clot formation
  • No established supplemental requirement for ruminants
    • Microbial synthesis and vit K in feeds
  • Deficiency limited to:
    • Cattle consuming moldy sweet clover have
    • prolonged clotting of blood - “sweet clover disease”
    • A fungus produces dicoumarol that is a metabolic
    • antagonist of vitamin K
      • Stiffness and lameness
      • Uncontrolled bleeding – hematoma of tissues
other water soluble vitamins not required in diet of ruminants
Other Water Soluble VitaminsNot required in diet of ruminants
    • Ruminants with functional rumen obtain water
    • soluble vitamins from the digestive tract
  • Niacin -------- Supplementation may benefit high
  • Biotin ---- producing animals
  • Folic acid ---
  • Vitamin B12 – Synthesized in rumen if Co present,
  • not present in feeds
  • Vitamin C - Not synthesized in cattle until about 3 wks
  • Riboflavin
  • Pyridoxine
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Choline
supplementation of b vitamins
Supplementation of B Vitamins
    • Prevent overt deficiency symptoms
      • Probably occur only in calves fed milk replacers
    • 2. Prevent subclinical deficiencies
      • Optimum production
      • Impact of stress on immune system
  • Niacin - May benefit early lactation cows
  • Biotin - May benefit herds with high incidence of
  • hoof lesions
  • Folic acid - Might increase milk production
  • Cobalt - B12 - (methylmalonyl CoA mutase) utilization
  • of propionate, foliate metabolism, milk yield
  • B-vitamins - immune function of stressed cattle
thiamin
Thiamin
  • 1. Adequate quantities normally produced by the bacteria
  • in the rumen
  • 2. Inadequate thiamin
    • Thiaminase and thiamin antimetabolites produced
    • in ruminants fed rapidly fermented diets
      • Infrequently polioencephalomalacia (PEM),
      • a disorder of the central nervous system
      • develops
      • Retracted head, weakness, collapse, blindness
      • are symptoms
      • Respond to administration of thiamin