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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion in the Universe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion in the Universe. Chapter 26 The Solar System Chapter 27 Stars Chapter 28 Exploring the Universe. Chapter Twenty-Six: The Solar System. 26.1 Motion and the Solar System 26.2 Motion and Astronomical Cycles 26.3 Objects in the Solar System.

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unit nine matter and motion in the universe
UNIT NINE: Matter and Motionin the Universe
  • Chapter 26 The Solar System
  • Chapter 27 Stars
  • Chapter 28 Exploring the Universe
chapter twenty six the solar system
Chapter Twenty-Six: The Solar System
  • 26.1 Motion and the Solar System
  • 26.2 Motion and Astronomical Cycles
  • 26.3 Objects in the Solar System
section 26 1 learning goals
Section 26.1 Learning Goals
  • Explain the significance of gravity in maintaining the solar system.
  • Distinguish between Sun-centered and Earth-centered models of the solar system.
  • Explain the current model of the solar system.
investigation 26a
Investigation 26A

Phases of the Moon

  • Key Question:

What causes the lunar cycle?

26 1 motion and the solar system
26.1 Motion and the solar system
  • Ancient astronomers used a landmark, such as a building or tree, to mark the point where the Sun rose or set each day.
  • The position of the sunset and sunrise changes over time.
26 1 observing patterns in the sky
26.1 Observing patterns in the sky
  • The Moon appears to change its shape and the time and position at which it rises and sets.
26 1 observing patterns in the sky1
26.1 Observing patterns in the sky
  • The rising and setting positions of the stars do not appear to change along the horizon over short periods of time.
  • However, the timethat stars rise or set each night gradually changes during a year.
26 1 observing patterns in the sky2
26.1 Observing patterns in the sky
  • A constellation is a group of stars that, when seen from Earth, form a pattern.
26 1 the earth centered model
26.1 The Earth-centered model
  • Ancient observers noticed that five bright objects seemed to wander among the stars at night.
  • They called these objects planets, from the Greek word meaning “wandering star,” and named them Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
26 1 the earth centered model1
26.1 The Earth-centered model
  • In 140 AD, the Greek astronomer Ptolemy developed a model that explained the apparent path of the planets.
  • He hypothesized that each planet moved on a circle, which, in turn, moved on a larger circle around Earth.
26 1 the sun centered model
26.1 The sun-centered model
  • While the Ptolemaic model could predict the positions of the planets, Nicholas Copernicus found that its predictions became less and less accurate over the centuries.
  • In Copernicus’ model, the Sunwas at the center of the solar system and the planets orbited in circles around the Sun.
26 1 the sun centered model1
26.1 The sun-centered model
  • The phases of Venus, discovered by Galileo in the 1600s, were part of the evidence that eventually overturned Ptolemy’s model.
  • Using a telescope he built himself, Galileo made two discoveries.
26 1 the sun centered model2
26.1 The sun-centered model
  • First, he argued that the phases of Venus could not be explained if Earth were at the center of the planets.
  • Second, Galileo saw that there were four moons orbiting Jupiter.
26 1 gravitational force
26.1 Gravitational force
  • Newton’s law of universal gravitation explains how the strength of the force depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.
26 1 gravitational force1
26.1 Gravitational force
  • Gravitational force is the force of attraction between all objects.
  • All objects that have mass attract each other.
26 1 orbits
26.1 Orbits
  • An orbit is a regular, repeating path that an object in space follows around another object.
  • An object in orbit is called a satellite.
26 1 orbits1
26.1 Orbits
  • In 1600, German mathematician Johannes Kepler determined that the orbits of the planets were not perfect circles but slightly elliptical.
26 1 orbits2
26.1 Orbits
  • Isaac Newton explained that an orbit results from the balance between inertia (the forward motion of an object in space), and gravitational.
  • Without the pull of gravity, a planet would travel off into space in a straight line.
26 1 current model of the solar system
26.1 Current model of the solar system
  • Today, we define the solar system as the sun and all objects that are gravitationally bound to the sun.
  • The solar system is roughly divided into the inner planets(Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and the outer planets(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)
  • The dwarf planet Pluto is the oldest known member of a smaller group of frozen worlds orbiting beyond Neptune.
26 1 comparing size and distance
26.1 Comparing size and distance
  • The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system.
  • One astronomical unit (AU) is equal to 150 million km, or the distance from Earth to the Sun.