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Codex-UK ´Gebrauchsgegenstände´ 3. Juni 2008 / BMGFJ. Titelformat bearbeiten. Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology - ofi. www.ofi.at. CROPACK 2010. Renewable vs. Biodegradable New materials for packaging technology. Michael Pitzl ofi – Department Packaging.

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codex uk gebrauchsgegenst nde 3 juni 2008 bmgfj

Codex-UK ´Gebrauchsgegenstände´3. Juni 2008 / BMGFJ

Titelformat bearbeiten

Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology - ofi

www.ofi.at

CROPACK 2010

Renewable vs. Biodegradable

New materialsforpackagingtechnology

Michael Pitzl

ofi – Department Packaging

an inconvient truth
An inconvient truth?

Source: www.youtube.com 2010-02-18

solution bioplastics
Solution – Bioplastics?
  • Recent headlines:

Coca-Cola Co announced the selective global roll-out of its new PET bottle made from up to 30 per cent plant materials such as sugar and molasses.

Bioserie iPhone® Case is really green!

  • Advertising slogan:

Packaging without the guilt? Bioplastics

Source: www.plasticsnews.com 2010-02-17

www.ubergizmo.com 2010-02-22

new materials
New materials?
  • Before 1940 approx. 80 % ofcommerciallyavailablebiodegradableplasticanditsmonomerswerediscoveredanddescribed
  • 1938 Polyethylen
  • In the 70s:
    • Oilcrises (1973)
    • Set pointforfurtherdevelopment
  • In the 80s:
    • Oilcrises (1980) – pilotplantsforbioplastics
    • Oxodegrableproducts – inhibitedthefurtherdevelopment?

Source: NARAYAN R. et al. 1994

www.n24.de 2010-02-17

definition of bioplastic
Definition of Bioplastic
  • Up to now not fixed (CEN/TC 249/WG 17 planed release 2010)
  • According to European Bioplastics:

Plasticbased on renewableresources

Biodegradable polymers which meet all criteria of scientifically recognized norms for biodegradability and compostability of plastics and plastic products (EU: EN 13432 / EN 14995, US: ASTM D-6400, ISO 17088).

  • NOT oxodegradable!

Source: www.european-bioplastics.org 2010-02-17

development of the market
Development of the market
  • Capacity 2009 400.000 t worldwide
  • Small market, but high growth rates up to 10 %

Source: www.european-bioplastics.org 2010-02-17

slide8

State of development

Research > Development > Pilot Plant > Commercialization > World-scale Plant > Industrial production

Source: bioplastics Magazine 03/2007

slide9

Biodegradable materials

  • In general 4 materials commercially available
    • Starch-based polymers
    • Polylactic acid
    • Polyhydroxyalkanoates
    • Cellulose derivates
    • Chitosan?
  • Polymer blends and
  • composites

Source: www.basf.com 2008-09-12

YU L. et al. 2006

slide10

Starch-based polymersMater-Bi®

  • Maize and/or potatoe starch in blend with polycaprolactones and other biodegradable esters
  • Europeas most common bioplastic

Source: www.novamont.com 2009-12-01

slide11

Starch-based polymersOthers

  • Plantic®Starch from maize and hydroxypropyl, Plantic Technologies (AUS)
  • Solanyl®Starch from potatoes, Rodenburg Biopolymers
  • (NL)
  • Bioplast®Starch blend, Biotec (DE)
  • Biopar®Starch from potatoes and blends, Biop AG (D)

Similar to PE (converting)

Limited applications!

Source: www.plantic.com.au 2009-04-01

slide12

Polylactic acid

  • Main producer: NatureWorks (US)
  • Other Producers: Hycail (FI), Toyota (J) and Uhde Inventa (D)
  • Glucose from maize or lactose from whey

Source: LIM L.-T. et al. 2008

slide13

Polylactic acid blends

  • Ecovio®

45 % PLA + Ecoflex®, BASF (D)

  • Ecovio® L-Foam

75 % PLA + Ecoflex®, BASF (D)

  • Bio-Flex®

PLA + Copolyester, FKuR (D)

Similar to PET and/or PS (converting)

Sensitive to temperature!

Source: www.basf.com 2008-09-12

YU L. et al. 2006

slide14

Polyhydroxyalkanoates

  • Mirel™ Metabolix (US)
  • Biomer™ Biomer (D)

Fermentation of starch, rape, plant residues, etc.

Only Injection Moulding!

PHB, PHV, PHBV, ...

Source: www.metabolix.com 2008-09-12

slide15

Cellulose derivates

NatureFlex™ Innovia (UK)

Barrier coatings!

Source: www.innoviafilms.com 2008-09-12

slide16

Comparision

Thermal properties: Melting temperatureBiopolymers comparable with conventional plastics

Source: WEBER C. J. 2000

oxygen transmission rate biopolymers in the midfield
Oxygen transmission rateBiopolymers in the midfield

Comparision

Source: WEBER C. J. 2000

slide18

Comparision

Water vapour transmission rateBiopolymers in the midfield

Source: WEBER C. J. 2000

food safety packaging material
Food safety packaging material

Nearly all starting substances are listed

Migration values are below legal limits

No significant difference in microbial growth on packaging material

No desintegration during shelf life

Migrants from PLA are safe

end of life composting
End of lifeComposting?

End of life

Source: WEBER C. J. 2000

end of life compsoting
End of lifeCompsoting?

End of life

Source: ENDRES H.-J. 2009

slide23

THANK YOU!

Michael Pitzl

E-Mail: michael.pitzl@ofi.at

  • Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology - ofi
  • Brehmstraße 14a
  • A-1110 Wien
  • +43-(0)1-798 16 01 - 597
  • +43-(0)1-798 16 01 - 480