Thought of the Day “Unless you try to do something beyond what you have already mastered, you will never grow”
Historical Time Line Hairdressing from the beginning of recorded history to the present
Objective The student be able to describe the early origins of hairstyling and barbering.
Cosmetology / Barbering • This field is recognized as one of the oldest professions in the world • Derived from the Greek word “kosmetikos” which means “skilled in the use of cosmetics” • The term “barber” is derived from the Latin word “barba” which means “the beard” or “the hair of the beard”
The Glacial Age • Haircutting and styling were practiced • Implements • Sharpened flints • Oyster shells • Bone • Animal strips of hide • used to tie hair or as adornment.
4000 B.C. • Ancient Egyptians indicated that barbers serviced the priesthood and nobility in Egypt over 6000 years age • They were the first to use cosmetics • personal beautification, religious ceremonies, and burial ceremonies • First to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion & well-versed in the art of makeup & hairdressing
Prior 3000 B.C. • Nail care • First evidence of recorded • Egypt and China • Egyptian men and women of high social rank wore red-orange henna on their nails • Kings and queens wore deep red • Lower rank wore only pale colors • The Chinese wore nails painted black or red
1500 B.C. • Coloring matter made from • Berries, Bark of trees, Minerals Insects, Nuts, Herbs, Leaves • Eye paint was the most popular of all cosmetics • 1500 B C first recorded use of henna • Henna (dye extracted from the leaves of an ornamental shrub) Reddish tint to hair • Egyptian tombs revealed combs, brushes, mirrors, cosmetics & razors made of tempered bronze & copper
500 B.C. • Golden Age of Greece • Hairstyling became a highly developed art
300 B.C. • Hairstyling was introduced in Rome • Women used haircolor to indicate class • noblewomen tinted their hair red; middle-class colored their hair blonde; poor women colored their hair black
Medieval times (Medieval times or Middle Ages were considered to occur from approximately 500 A.D. to 1400 A.D.) Cosmetology and medicine were taught as combined subjects in English universities
Fourteenth century A.D. Transition in Western civilization from medieval times to modern history
Renaissance (Began in the fourteenth century and lasted into the seventeenth century) • Particular emphasis was placed on physical appearance • Hair was carefully dressed and ornaments and headdresses were worn
1450 • Barbering and surgery was separated by law • With the exception of dentistry • Barbers no longer could perform surgery & surgeons were forbidden to act as barbers
1541 • Henry VIII reunited barbers and surgeons of London by granting a charter to the Company of Barber Surgeons • Role in medical practice dwindled in importance, barber-surgeons still were relied on for dispensing medicinal herbs & pulling teeth
Late 1700’s • Law passed officially separating barbers from surgeons; hairstyling emerged as an independent profession
1875 • Nineteenth century – an era marked by research and innovation • Frenchman Marcel Grateau invented the techniques using irons for waving and curling hair • This practice developed into the art of thermal waving, which is known today as Marcel waving.
1890 Sarah Breedlove suffered from a scalp condition and began losing her hair She started experimenting with store-bought products and homemade remedies
1890 • The first hairdressing academy was opened in Chicago by a pair of Frenchmen, Brisbois and Federmeyer.
1892 Frenchman Alexandre F. Goderoy invented the hot-blast hair dryer
1905 – twentieth century • Charles Nessler invented the first electric perm machine (fig 1-4) • Heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods • Two methods were used to wind hair strands around the metal units • Long hair • Wound from scalp to the ends - called spiral wrapping • Short hair • Wound from the ends toward scalp – called croquignole wrapping
1906 Sarah Breedlove married her third husband, C.J. Walker , and was henceforth known as madam C.J. Walker She began to sell her scalp conditioning and healing formula, called Madam C.J. Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower.
1910 Madam C.J. Walker moved her company to Indianapolis, where she built a factory, a hair salon, and a training school
1917 Madam C.J. Walker organized a convention for her Madam C.J. Walker Hair Culturist Union of America
1931 • The preheat method of perming was introduced due to client’s fear of being “tied” to an electrical contraption with the possibility of receiving a shock or burn • Hair was wrapped using a croquignole method • then preheated clamps were placed over the wound curls
1932 • Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough pioneered a method that used external heat generated by chemical reaction • Small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands • When pads were moistened with water, a chemical heat was released that created long-lasting curls • This was the first machineless perm
1941 • Scientists developed another method of permanent waving that used waving lotion, but did not use heat • It was called a cold wave and virtually replaced all predecessors and competitors • The terms cold waving and permanent waving almost became synonymous
1950 • Growth and expansion occurred which were unrivaled by any other time in history • Advancements in technology and innovative haircutting, chemical services, esthetics, and nail extensions occurred • (Examples include haircutting clippers, edgers, facial machines, day spas, acrylic nails and fiberglass tips, permanent makeup, artificial eyelashes, and so on
Summary We have learned that hairdressing has evolved from the Glacial Age to the present
Assignment Why is knowing about this history and evolution of this industry so important to my success in cosmetology or a related field? Write a short essay to the above question.