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System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production PowerPoint Presentation
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System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production S.P. Singh, R.M. Kumar, B. Sreedevi, P. Krishnamurthy, and S.V. Subbaiah Department of Agronomy Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, HYDERABAD – 500 030

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System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) for Sustaining Irrigated Rice Production

S.P. Singh, R.M. Kumar, B. Sreedevi,

P. Krishnamurthy, and S.V. Subbaiah

Department of Agronomy

Directorate of Rice Research

Rajendranagar, HYDERABAD – 500 030

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Rice is the most important cereal crop in India that holds the key for food security. In India, rice is grown in an area of about 42.5 m.ha. with a production of about 87.5 m. tons. With an average annual population growth rate of 1.8 percent and per capita consumption estimated to be 400 gm of rice per day, demand for rice is expected to reach 140 m. tonnes by 2025.

This increase in demand can only be met by maintaining a steady increase in production of 2 million tons per year in the coming decades. The potential yield increase from HYVs has remained stagnant along with a decline in the natural resource base. So to meet rice requirements in the future, there is need to surmount the technological challenges of breaking the yield barrier, improving input use efficiency, evolving innovative agronomic practices, cost-effective/low-cost crop management techniques, and developing environmentally-acceptable strategies .

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Objectives

  • To identify the sustainability of different crop establishment methods for increasing the yield in transplanted rice.
  • To assess the effects of alternative sowing and transplanting dates in different crop establishment methods.
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Materials and methods

  • Co-ordinated trials on evaluation of different methods of rice cultivation were conducted during kharif 2004, 2005 and 2006 under a wide variety of soil conditions -- sandy, sandy loam, clay, and clay loam soils in the:
  • Southern Zone: Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Mandya, Karaikal, Aduthurai, Siruguppa, Pondicherry, and Maruteru;
  • Western Zone: Karjat and Nawagam;
  • Northern Zone: Pantnagar and Ludhiana;
  • Eastern Zone: Pusa, Patna, Raipur, Titabar, Kanpur, Chiplima, Jagadalpur and Ranchi;
  • Hill Zone: lmora, Malan, Upper Shillong, Umiam, Khudwani, Chatha, and Arundhatinagar.
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RESULTS

Southern zone: Higher grain yield compared to CRC recorded for SRI (4.4 to 22.8%) and ICM (4.5 to 10.3%) at Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Aduthurai, Mandya and Siruguppa, while reduction in grain yield was recorded under SRI and ICM compared to CRC at Pondicherry, Karaikal and Maruteru under same date of nursery sowing.

Under same date of transplanting, SRI recorded higher grain yield of 19.0 to 31.9% at Coimbatore, Aduthurai and Siruguppa, and ICM recorded 9.6 to 23.0% more at Coimbatore, ARI-Rajendranagar, Aduthurai, Sirguppa and Maruteru, while reduction in grain yield was recorded under SRI at ARI-Rajendranagar, Mandya, Pondicherry, Karaikal and Maruteru, and under ICM at Mandya, and Karaikal.

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SOUTH ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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SOUTH ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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SOUTH ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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Western zone (Nawagam and Karjat): Compared to CRC, SRI (7.0 to 7.8%) and ICM (0.84 to 6.7%) recorded higher grain yield under same of date of nursery sowing; while under same of date of transplanting, SRI recorded higher grain yield (-0.82 to 8.82%) over CRC, but yield reduction was recorded by ICM over CRC.

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WEST ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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Northern zone(Pantnagar & Karputhala/Ludhiana): Recorded reduction in grain yield in SRI and ICM over CRC under same date of nursery sowing as well as with same date of transplanting

North Zone: % mean grain yield increase under SRI, ICM over CRC, and SRI over ICM

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NORTH ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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Eastern zone: SRI (0.44 to 29.25%) and ICM (7.7 to 31.82%) recorded higher grain yield over CRC at Patna, Titabar, Kanpur, Ranchi and Chiplima, while reduction in grain yield was recorded at Pusa, Raipur and Jagdalpur under same date of nursery sowing. However, under same date of transplanting, SRI (1 to 15.8%) at Pusa, Patna, Titabar, Jagdalpur and Ranchi and ICM (6.8 to 19.3%) at Pusa, Patna, Titabar, Chiplima and Ranchi recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while reduction in grain yield under SRI and ICM was recorded at Chiplima and Raipur and Jagdalpur

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EAST ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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EAST ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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EAST ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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Hill zone: Under same date of nursery sowing, SRI (0.35 to 65.7%) at Chatha, Upper Shillong, Umiam and Arundhatinagar and ICM (17.2 to 46.8%) at Umiam and Arundhatinagar recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while in other places (Almora and Malan), reduction in grain yield was observed.

Under same date of transplanting, SRI (2.7 to 93.7%) at Chatha, Khudwani, Umiam and Arundhatinagar and ICM (20.6 to 43.3%) at Khudwani, Umiam and Arundhatinagar recorded higher grain yield over CRC, while in other places, reduction in grain yield was observed in SRI and ICM over CRC.

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HILL ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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HILL ZONE

Grain yield (t/ha) under CRC, SRI & ICM

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More research is needed on mechanical weeding + soil churning in relation to root growth and grain yield in different soil types. Quantification of water, land and labour productivity and nutrient use efficiency are required. Relative number and diversity of micro-organisms, presence of enzymes, and nutrients release patterns in rice rhizosphere under ICM and SRI have to characterized. Additional attention is also required for grain yield trends with timing, emergence of insects and pests, and nutrient mining under both systems. SRI and ICM system have a high potential for rice production and farmers’ income in future with less input requirement.