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Technical Infrastructure and Operational Practices 13% ~ 26 questions CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS MAINFRAME MINICOMPUTER PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) WORKSTATION SUPERCOMPUTER * MAINFRAME MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM

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Technical Infrastructure and Operational Practices


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categories of computers
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
  • MAINFRAME
  • MINICOMPUTER
  • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)
  • WORKSTATION
  • SUPERCOMPUTER

*

mainframe
MAINFRAME

MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second

  • LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER
  • 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS
  • MASSIVE DATA
  • COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS

*

minicomputer
MINICOMPUTER
  • MIDDLE-RANGE
  • 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS
  • USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME

*

microcomputer
MICROCOMPUTER
  • DESKTOP OR PORTABLE
  • 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM
  • PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS
  • AFFORDABLE
  • MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS
  • CAN BE NETWORKED

*

workstation
WORKSTATION
  • DESKTOP COMPUTER
  • POWERFUL GRAPHICS
  • EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES
  • MULTI-TASKING
  • USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)

*

computer components

CPU

INPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY STORAGE

OUTPUT DEVICES

COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

COMPUTER COMPONENTS

BUSES

h w or s w acquisition
H/W or S/W Acquisition
  • Why Purchase?
    • Immediate system availability
    • High quality
    • Low price
    • Available support
h w or s w acquisition11
H/W or S/W Acquisition
  • Steps
    • Identifying the problem
    • Identifying potential vendors
    • Soliciting vendor information
    • Defining system requirements
    • Requesting vendor proposals
steps
Steps
  • Reviewing proposals and screening vendors
  • Visiting sites
  • Selecting the vendor
  • Benchmarking
  • Negotiating a contract
  • Implementing the new system
  • Managing post-implementation support
steps13
Steps
  • Benchmarking
    • Codified comparison of performance measures between systems
    • Ensures adopted application satisfies the organization's minimum requirements
  • Learning from Experience
software overview
Software Overview
  • Computer program: sequences of instructions for the computer.
  • Documentation describes program functions to help people use it
  • Systems software coordinates the activities of hardware & programs.
  • Applications software helps users solve particular problems.
operating systems activities
Operating Systems Activities
  • Perform common hardware functions
  • Provide a user interface
  • Provide hardware independence
  • Manage system memory
  • Manage processing
  • Control access to system resources
  • Manage files
operating systems activities17
Operating Systems Activities
  • Perform common hardware functions
    • Accept keyboard input
    • Store data on disks
    • Send data to output devices
  • Provide a user interface
    • Command-based interfaces
    • Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
operating systems activities18
Operating Systems Activities
  • Manage processing
    • Multitasking: more than one program can run at a time using a single processor
    • Time sharing: multiple users simultaneously using the resources of a single processor
    • Scalability: easy adaptation to more users or tasks
  • Manage files
    • Physical storage location
    • File permissions
    • File access
  • Control access to system resources
    • Protection against unauthorized access
    • Logins and passwords
other operating systems
Other Operating Systems
  • Network OS
    • Netware
    • Windows NT Server 4.0
    • Windows 2000 Server
  • Enterprise Operating Systems
    • IBM’s OS/390
    • HP’s MPE/iX (Multiprogramming Executive with integrated POSIX)
  • Consumer appliances OSs
    • Windows CE
    • Mobil Linux
utility programs
Utility Programs
  • Virus scanner
  • File compressor
  • Screen saver
database models
Database Models
  • The Hierarchical Model
    • Records are related hierarchically -- each category is a subcategory of the next level up
    • Disadvantages of hierarchical databases
      • To retrieve a record, a user must start at the root and navigate the hierarchy.
      • If a link is broken, the entire branch is lost.
      • Requires considerable data redundancy because child records can have only one parent
database models23
Database Models
  • The Network Model
    • Allows a record to be linked to more than one parent
    • Supports many-to-many (N:M) relationships
    • Advantage of the network model
      • Reduced data redundancy
    • Disadvantages of the network model
      • Complicated to build and maintain
      • Difficult to navigate
database models24
Database Models
  • The Relational Model
    • Consists of tables; links among entities are maintained with foreign keys
    • Advantages of relational databases
      • Same advantages of a network database without the complications.
      • Easier to conceptualize and maintain.
      • Virtually all DBMSs offered for microcomputers accommodate the relational model.
database management systems dbmss
Normally employs relational data model

Provide a user view

Provide tools to create & modify the database

Store & retrieve data

Manipulate data

Produce reports

Database Management Systems (DBMSs)
overview
Overview
  • Communication Flow
    • Synchronous communication
    • Asynchronous communication
  • Data Transmission Speeds
    • Measured in bits per second (bps)
    • Kilobits per second (kbps)
    • Megabits per second (Mbps)
    • Gigabits per second (Gbps)
computer networks
Computer Networks
  • Telecommunications media
  • Telecommunications devices
  • Software
  • Hardware devices
types of media
Types of Media
  • Guided media
    • Twisted Pair
    • Coaxial Cable
    • Fiber-Optic Cable
    • Microwave Transmission
  • Unguided media
    • Infrared Transmission
      • Line of sight
      • Short distances
    • Microwave
types of devices
Types of Devices
  • Modem
    • Analog signals: continuous
    • Digital signals: discrete
    • Modulation: translating digital data to analog
    • Demodulation: translating analog data to digital
    • Modems modulate & demodulate data
carriers
Carriers
  • Common carriers
    • Long distance carriers
  • Value-added carriers
    • Special purpose carriers
    • Additional services
services
Services
  • Line types
    • Switched
    • Dedicated
  • Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
  • Digital subscriber lines (DSL)
  • Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
  • T1 Carrier
network concepts considerations
Network Concepts & Considerations
  • Network topology
    • Star
    • Bus
    • Ring
  • Network types
    • Local Area Networks
    • Wide Area Networks
network topologies

User

User

HOST

User

User

Network Topologies

STAR

network topologies35

User

User

User

User

User

User

Network Topologies

BUS

network topologies36

User

User

User

User

Network Topologies

RING

network types
Network Types
  • Logical Area Network (LAN)
    • Limited geographical area
    • Any topology possible
    • Network Interface Card (NIC)
    • Designs
      • Peer-to-peer
      • Client-server
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
communications software
Communications Software
  • Error checking
  • Message formatting
  • Security
  • Network Operating System (NOS)
  • Network Management Software
7 layers of osi rm model
7 layers of OSI/RM Model

Please Do Not Touch Susan’s Pretty A**!!!

Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

use and functioning of the internet
Use and Functioning of the Internet
  • Interconnected networks
  • NO control
  • NO management
  • NO charge
  • NO laws
  • NO ownership
  • NO………………………
how the internet works
How the Internet Works
  • Hosts
  • Routers forward packets to other networks
  • Internet Protocol Stack (TCP/IP)
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Backbones
how the internet works42
How the Internet Works
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov

World Wide Web

Domain category

Hypertext transfer protocol

Host Network Name

internet services
Internet Services
  • E-mail (Electronic mail)
    • Can include images, attachments, or HTML
    • Routed by gateways and routers
  • Telnet: remote login
  • FTP: file transfer
  • Chat rooms: allow interactive conversations
  • Instant Messaging: online, real-time communication over the Internet
  • Videoconferencing
  • Internet phone
the world wide web
The World Wide Web
  • An application running on the Internet
  • Allow multimedia presentation of information
  • Allow point and click
  • Allow graphical interface
  • Make the Internet much more user friendly
web software
Web Software
  • Web browsers
  • Search engines
    • Keyword indexes: fast & broad
    • Subject indexes: focused searches
  • Tools
    • Word processors
    • HTML editor
    • HTML Template
    • Text editor
  • View your page
  • Add effects judiciously
net issues
Net Issues
  • Service bottlenecks
  • Firewalls
  • Privacy & security
    • Cookies
    • Cryptography
    • Encryption
    • Digital signature
hardware reviews
Hardware Reviews
  • Review h/w acquisition plan
    • See if aligns with IS plan to identify any deficiencies
    • See if documentation for h/w and s/w specifications adequate
  • Review PC acquisition criteria to determine:
    • Written policy statements exists and have been communicated
    • Criteria, procedures and forms developed
    • Request supported by cost/benefit analysis
hardware reviews49
Hardware Reviews
  • Review change management controls
    • Verify IS mgmt developed and enforced change schedules
    • Verify operator documentation appropriately revise before implementation
    • Select sample of h/w changes that affected scheduling of IP and see if plans work
    • Assure h/w changes communicated to all
operating system reviews
Operating System Reviews
  • Interview technical personnel
    • Review and approval process of option selection
    • Test procedures for s/w implementation
    • Review and approval procedures for test results
    • Documentation requirements
  • Review system s/w selection procedures
    • Address both IS and biz plans
    • Include IS processing and control requirements
    • Include overview of capabilities of s/w and control options
operating system reviews51
Operating System Reviews
  • Review feasibility study and selection process to determine:
    • Proposed system objectives and purposes consistent with request/proposal
    • Same selection criteria applied to all proposals
  • Review cost/benefit analysis of system s/w procedures
    • Total cost of ownership
    • h/w requirements and capacity
    • Training and support requirements
    • Financial stability of vendor
operating system reviews52
Operating System Reviews
  • Review controls over installation of changed system s/w
    • Changes scheduled with least impact
    • Written plan developed for testing changes
    • Problems arising from testing resolved and re-tested
    • Test procedures adequate
    • Fallback or restoration in place
operating system reviews53
Operating System Reviews
  • Review system s/w change controls
    • Access to libraries limited to relevant people
    • Changes adequately documented and tested
    • S/w authorized to move from test to production environment
database reviews
Database Reviews
  • Design
    • Primary key exists
  • Administration
    • Access rights
  • Interfaces
    • Secure interface with other systems
  • Portability
    • SQL is used whenever possible
lan reviews
LAN Reviews
  • Check
    • Topology and design
    • LAN components
    • Functions performed by Administrator
    • Wiring
    • File server if secure
    • NOT properly secured LAN manuals
lan reviews56
LAN Reviews
  • Logical security controls
    • Unique passwords and forced to change regularly
    • Access based on need-to-know basis
    • Workstation disabled after period of inactivity
    • Remote access as supervisor prohibited
    • Log-on attempts logged
network operating control reviews
Network Operating Control Reviews
  • All sensitive files identified and requirements for security identified
  • Adequate restart and recovery mechanisms in place
  • Individuals have access ONLY to authorized applications
  • Encryption used for sensitive data
is operations reviews
IS Operations Reviews
  • Computer operations
    • Restrict operator access capabilities
    • Scheduling
    • Exception-processing procedures
    • Execute re-run handling
    • Librarian access capabilities
    • Contents and location of off-line storage
  • Data entry control
    • Authorization of input documents
    • Segregation of duties
is operations reviews59
IS Operations Reviews
  • Lights out operations
    • Remote access to master console granted to stand-by operators for contingency purposes
    • Contingency plan must be in place and followed
    • Ensure all errors result in operator notification
  • Problem management reporting reviews
    • Review reporting procedures
    • Review reasons for delays
    • Determine significant and recurring problems resolved
h w availability and utilization reviews
H/W Availability and Utilization Reviews
  • Review preventative maintenance schedule to see if vendor-recommended maintenance frequency observed
  • Review h/w availability and utilization reports to see if workload requirements met
  • Determine if IS resources are available for those resource-demanding programs
  • Review problem log to see if h/w malfunctions reviewed by top management
scheduling reviews
Scheduling Reviews
  • Review console log to see if scheduled jobs completed as scheduled
  • See if processing priorities established
  • See if critical applications receive high priorities
  • See if no. of personnel in each shift enough