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Serial Method (Twelve Tone Technique) Group: Karen, David, Michelle, Patrick, Jody, Angie Composer Timeline “The Method of Composing with Twelve Tones Related Only to Each Other” - Schönberg (now known as the 12-Tone Technique or Dodecaphony) Tone Row P - prime I - inversion

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serial method twelve tone technique

Serial Method(Twelve Tone Technique)

Group: Karen, David, Michelle, Patrick, Jody, Angie

composer timeline
Composer Timeline

12-Tone Serial Method

the method of composing with twelve tones related only to each other sch nberg

“The Method of Composing with Twelve Tones Related Only to Each Other” - Schönberg

(now known as the 12-Tone Technique or Dodecaphony)

tone row
Tone Row
  • P - prime
  • I - inversion
  • R - retrograde
  • RI - retrograde inversion

12-Tone Serial Method

the definition of serialism
The Definition of Serialism
  • A method or style of composition which a parameter of the piece is subjected to a fixed permutation or series of elements in succession.

12-Tone Serial Method

serialism a basic definition
Serialism - A Basic Definition
  • A piece of music for which there is an order to the progression of events.
  • Events are notes and/or aspects of the music
    • Including: chord duration, rhythms, dynamics
    • Twelve Tone only refers to the notes.
  • The order of events (series) are determined by a numerical representation of a tone row

12-Tone Serial Method

tone row definition
Tone Row - Definition
  • The arrangement of all twelve notes of the equal-tempered scale so that each note appears only once.
  • Each note has equal importance
    • No tonic and dominant relations
  • The order of these twelve notes is to be strictly followed throughout the piece
    • Only four possible permutations on the row

12-Tone Serial Method

tone row conventions
Tone Row Conventions
  • Once a series is created it can be transposed over all 12 notes
  • There are four forms of a tone row for each of the 12 transposition
  • This allows for 48 forms for any particular tone row
  • With so many tone rows (479,001,600), possibilities for music is virtually limitless

12-Tone Serial Method

tone row conventions cont d
Tone Row Conventions (cont’d)
  • Intervals are a quality heard, not seen
    • They are diatonic intervals - not exact
    • Cb would become a B for transcription
  • Any particular tone row must be played in whole, or as a part of one or more statements of a series
  • There were no conventions for: changing register, number of series played, etc.

12-Tone Serial Method

four forms of a tone row
Four Forms of a Tone Row
  • Prime form
    • the original form of a twelve tone row or any of its transpositions
  • Retrograde form
    • the statement of a tone row in the reverse order from which it was stated in prime form

12-Tone Serial Method

four forms of a tone row cont d
Four Forms of a Tone Row (cont’d)
  • Inversion form
    • Turning the prime statement of a tone row upside down, mirroring all intervals
      • minor 3rd up becomes a minor 3rd down
  • Retrograde Inversion form
    • the statement of a tone row in the reverse order from which it was stated in inversion form

12-Tone Serial Method

slide12

Prime

Retrograde

Inversion

Retrograde Inversion

12-Tone Serial Method

tone row naming
Tone Row Naming
  • The basic four shapes of a tone row are usually labeled as follows (although there is no standard naming convention) :
    • P for prime
    • I for inversion
    • R for retrograde
    • RI for retrograde inversion

12-Tone Serial Method

tone row naming cont d
Tone Row Naming (cont’d)
  • Subscript numeral is the pitch-class number
    • interval by semitones from index number
      • (This is not a standard either)
  • Index number is represented by subscript 0 and is set by the starting note of the prime
  • Example: Assuming P0 to be on C
    • P10 represents a prime version of the tone row beginning on Bb

12-Tone Serial Method

ideas behind a tone row
Ideas Behind a Tone Row
  • Avoid melodic progressions which are too traditional in character
    • Arpeggio chords or scale association.

Bb: I iii V

Ab: I iii V

12-Tone Serial Method

ideas behind a tone row cont d
Ideas Behind a Tone Row (cont’d)
  • Avoid using too many melodic intervals of the same or similar size
    • These may lead to melodic monotony

M3 M3 M3

12-Tone Serial Method

ideas behind a tone row cont d17
Ideas Behind a Tone Row (cont’d)
  • Avoid chromatic combinations that result in the resolution of a leading tone

12-Tone Serial Method

ideas behind a tone row cont d18
Ideas Behind a Tone Row (cont’d)
  • Except in a deliberate design devoted to a particular interval, a row generally contains a balanced number of seconds, thirds, fourths or fifths, and tritones

P5 st st m7 M2 st tt st P4 P5 M7

12-Tone Serial Method

terminology
Terminology
  • Closed system - all the selected tone row forms contain the same two notes for their outer pitches
  • Twelve-tone aggregate - groups of notes freely combined with each other to form the twelve tone row

12-Tone Serial Method

terminology cont d
Terminology (cont’d)
  • Hexachord - the row divided into 2 groups of 6 notes
  • Combinatoriality - “the simultaneous presentations of two different forms of a single row so constructed that the new twelve-tone aggregates are created by the combination of their hexachord”

12-Tone Serial Method

explanation of matrix creation
Explanation of matrix creation
  • http://www.pcpros.net/~ntxawgl/music/12_tones_technique.htm

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works
Composers and Works
  • Josef Hauer (1883-1959)
  • Piano Piece, op.25 (1923)
  • Wandlungen (1927)
  • Over 1,000 Zwöftonspiele (Twelve-Tone Games) after 1939
  • Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951)
  • Five Piano Pieces, op.23 (1923)
  • Serenade, op.24 (1923)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Suite for Piano, op.24 (1924)—first completely twelve-tone work
  • Wind Quintet, op.26 (1924)
  • Suite for Seven Instruments (1926)
  • Third String Quartet (1927)
  • Variations for Orchestra (1928)
  • Suite in E, op.29 (1926)
  • Variations, op.31 (1928)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d24
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Von heute auf morgen, op.32 (1928)
  • Piano Piece, op.33a (1929)
  • Moses und Aron (1930)
  • Accompaniment to a Film, op.34 (1930)
  • Fourth String Quartet (1936)
  • Violin Concerto (1936)
  • Piano Concerto (1942)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d25
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • String Trio, op.45 (1946)
  • Phantasy for violin and piano, op.47 (1949)
  • Alban Berg (1885-1935)
  • "Schliese mir die Augen beide" (1925)
  • Lyric Suite (1925)
  • Violin Concerto (1935)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d26
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Anton Webern (1883-1945)
  • Kinderstücke (1924)
  • String Trio, op.20 (1927)
  • Symphony, op.21 (1928)
  • Quartet, op.22 (1930)
  • Concerto, op.24 (1934)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d27
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Nikoloas Skalkottas (1904-1949)
  • Third Piano Concerto (1939)
  • Fourth String Quartet (1940)
  • Ernst Krenek (1904-1968)
  • Karl V (1933)
  • Lamentio Jerimaiae Prophetae (1942)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d28
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Luigi Dallapiccola (1904-1975)
  • Il Coro degli zitti (1936)
  • Tre Laudi (1937)
  • Volo di notte (1939)
  • Canti di prigiona (1941)
  • Cinque Frammento di Saffo (1942)
  • Liriche greche (1945)
  • Job (1950)

12-Tone Serial Method

composers and works cont d29
Composers and Works (cont’d.)
  • Goffredo Petrassi (b. 1904)
  • Noche oscura (1951)
  • Second Concerto for Orchestra (1952)
  • Wolfgang Fortner (1907-1987)
  • Third String Quartet (1948)
  • Milton Babbitt (b. 1916)
  • 3 Compositions for Piano

12-Tone Serial Method

www sites
WWW sites:
  • http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_twelve_tone.html
  • http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/schonberg.html
  • http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/classmus.html
  • http://www.pcpros.net/~ntxawgl/music/12_tones_technique.htm
  • http://www.futurenet.com/classicalnet/composers/features/schoenberg/arnie.html
  • http://music1.csudh.edu/Mus486/TwelveTone/

12-Tone Serial Method

more www sites
More WWW sites:
  • http://geocities.com/Vienna/9498/settheory.html
  • http://www-personal.umich.edu/~fields/gems/5.htm
  • http://arts.usf.edu/music/wtm/art-aw.html
  • http://www.music.princeton.edu/~ckk/smmt/serialism.3.html
  • http://ananke.advanced.org/3343/web-docs/muglossary.html
  • http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/13162.html
  • http://thumper.pomona.edu/~elindholm/web_op6.htm

12-Tone Serial Method