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Persuasive Communications. Communication Model. Encodes. Selective Exposure. Sender (source). Message. Channel (medium). Receiver (consumer). Decodes. Responds Appropriately?. Yes. No. Miscomprehends?. Yes. Feedback. No. Sender.

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Presentation Transcript

Communication model l.jpg
Communication Model

Encodes

Selective Exposure

Sender

(source)

Message

Channel

(medium)

Receiver

(consumer)

Decodes

Responds

Appropriately?

Yes

No

Miscomprehends?

Yes

Feedback

No


Sender l.jpg
Sender

  • Sources encode message with symbols, pictures, words, images.

  • Formal sources:

    • Company, business, organization

  • Informal sources:

    • Family, friends


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Source Effects

  • The impact a particular source has on message delivery and comprehension.

  • Source credibility

    • Perceived trustworthiness

    • Formal vs. informal

  • Source attractiveness

    • Perceived social value

    • Sleeper effect


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Channel (Medium)

  • The message is delivered via some channel:

    • Paid vs. unpaid

    • Personal vs. impersonal

    • Print

    • Broadcast

    • Electronic


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Receiver

  • The target audience.

  • Receivers decode message based on their own experiences and personal characteristics.

  • Affecting decoding:

    • Information processing system

    • Level of involvement

    • Mood

    • Noise


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Feedback

  • The message the receiver sends back to the sender.

  • Feedback may be verbal or nonverbal.

  • Measuring feedback.


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Designing Persuasive Communications

  • First, establish communications objective.

    • Create awareness

    • Promote image

    • Message retention

    • Stimulate action


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Designing, continued...

  • Second, choose media strategy.

  • Which media does your target audience listen to or read?

  • Consumer profile--specific media consumers read or watch.

  • Audience profile--descriptions of audiences that listen to/watch specific media.


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Designing, continued...

  • Third, decide on message strategy.

  • Goal of the message strategy is to be persuasive relative to the communications objective.

  • Issues to consider:

    • Words vs. pictures

    • Vividness

    • Repetition

    • Semantics


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Message Presentation

  • Message framing

  • Level of involvement should be considered when deciding on message presentation.


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One-sided vs. Two-sided Messages

  • One-sided messages

    • Present positive messages, supportive arguments

    • Most effective when the audience is:

      • Friendly

      • Favors the communicator’s position

      • Unlikely to hear opposing position


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  • Two-sided messages

    • Present both positive and negative information--supportive and refutational arguments

    • Most effective when the audience is:

      • Not already loyal to product

      • Well-educated

      • Likely to hear opposing claims

      • Already aware of negative information about the product


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  • Inoculation Theory

    • Presenting refutational arguments to consumers before they hear it from others makes the message appear more credible.

    • Inoculates consumers from competitors’ ads that will be negative.


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Comparative Advertising

  • Messages that directly compare a brand to a competing brand.

  • Comparison in terms of one or more specific attributes.

  • Most effective when they help consumers differentiate between two brands.

  • Disadvantages: Consumers may not be able to differentiate; false claims.


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Emotional Appeals

  • Fear appeals

    • Used in over 15% of TV ads

    • Used to either encourage or discourage certain behaviors

    • The intensity of the fear appeal is related to its effectiveness--moderate levels of fear appear to be most effective.


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Attitude

change

Degree of fear


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  • Humor Appeals

    • Danger--makes product look ridiculous

    • Most effective when:

      • Clearly identifies brand and humor does not overwhelm the product

      • Distracts attention away from counterargumentation

      • Appropriate to brand’s image

      • Used with existing products

      • Used with low-involvement products


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Humor, continued...

  • Most effective when:

    • Audience is younger, better educated, upscale, professional

    • Ads are shown in action-adventure environment rather than sitcoms (contrast effect, Gestalt)


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Abrasive Advertising

  • An unpleasant ad that antagonizes listeners

  • Agony commercials that show graphic detail upsetting to consumers


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Sex Appeals

  • Effective when sex is related to the advertised product.

  • Ineffective is used just to attract attention--may interfere with message comprehension and cognitive processing.