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Section 1: Early Influences Section 2: Independence Section 3: The First National Government Section 4: The Constitutional Convention Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution. CHAPTER 2. Origins of U.S. Government. Section 1: Early Influences. Objectives:

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origins of u s government

Section 1: Early Influences

Section 2: Independence

Section 3: The First National Government

Section 4: The Constitutional Convention

Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution

CHAPTER 2

Origins of U.S. Government

section 1 early influences
Section 1: Early Influences
  • Objectives:
    • What political ideals did English colonists bring with them to North America?
    • What major documents limited the power of English monarchs?
    • How were the ideals of limited and representative government evident in colonial governments?
section 1 early influences3
Section 1: Early Influences
  • Political ideals of English colonists:
    • limited government
    • representative government
    • Marsiglio of Padua > (Italian Philosopher)Believed that the line of power should be People, State, Church. Strong Believer in in Majority rule and making laws according to people’s will.

a. Separation of Church and State

    • Baron de Montesquieu > Believed that the Government should be divided into 3 separate branches of government.

a. Executive

b. Legislative

c. Judicial

*Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances*

section 1 early influences4
Section 1: Early Influences
  • Major documents that limited the power of English monarchs:
    • the Magna Carta1215> Limited the powers of the King. (John) “Cornerstone of Liberty:” Became main defense against arbitrary powers of unjust rule in England.
    • the Petition of Right 1628> Required Monarchs to receive approval from Parliament.

(ie. Imprisoning people unjustly, house soldiers, military rule in times of peace.)

    • the English Bill of Rights > clearlyestablished that a monarch couldn’t rule with out the consent of Parliament.(right to petition the king without fear,monarch couldn’t keep an army without the consent of Parliament, Free Parliamentary elections)

All of these documents lead to the protection of English citizens rights from being violated. This ideal helps ensure that government servers to protect the publics best interest.

section 1 early influences5
Section 1: Early Influences
  • Evidence of English political ideals in colonial governments:
    • Most charters limited government.(Charter > Written grant of authority from King)

Royal > belonged directly to the crown (8) ie. Virginia Co. set up a water route to the orient.

Proprietary > Proprietor in charge of colony,by king. (ie. Maryland Lord Baltimore,Pennsylvania/William Penn

Corporate > Governor elected by property owners, king suppose to give approval (not asked)

(ie. Connecticut and Road Island)

    • The governor of each colony served as the chief executive for that colony’s government. (Ruled with instruction from London)
    • Governors were appointed or elected.
    • Assemblies of elected representatives existed in most colonies. (Upper house, House of Lords/Lower House, House of Commons)
    • Assemblies and councils served to limit governor’s power. (ideals from Documents.

Power of the Purse > Power to Tax and spend

section 2 independence
Section 2: Independence
  • Objectives:
    • What were two early attempts at unity among the colonies?
    • What British policies pushed the colonies to cooperate with one another?
    • What were some of the ideals that influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
    • How were the governments of the newly independent states similar?
section 2 independence7
Section 2: Independence
  • Responsibilities of London:
  • 1.Colonial Defense & Foreign Affairs
  • 2. Uniform system of Money/Credit
  • 3. TRADE (gave colonies and England a Market)
  • Attempts at unity:
    • New England Confederation of 1643 > Mass,NH,MD,CT/Defense against American Indians (If one colony disagreed it would stop the Confederation from taking action)
    • Albany Plan of Union> Purpose to discuss problem of colonial trade and dangers of attacks by the French & Native American (French Indian War)

a. annual congress delegates (rep.) from each of the 13 colonies

b. power to raise military and naval forces

c. make war or peace

d. regulate trade,tax and collect customs duties

(proposed by Ben Franklin, turned down by colonies and the crown)

section 2 independence8
Section 2: Independence
  • British policies that brought the colonies together:
    • Trade regulations:
      • Navigation Acts 1660’s - 1773 > The twofold object of this act was to protect English shipping, and to secure a profit to the home country from the colonies. .Certain items could only be imported and exported. (ie. Tobacco, cotton, tea,sugar)

- exports must arrive in England before ultimate destination

- transported in British ships.

    • Acts/Taxes:
      • Sugar Act > raised import costs on wine, molasses and sugar
      • Quartering Act > colonial authorities must provide barracks and supplies for British troops. (if no barracks, unoccupied dwellings or inns)
      • Currency Act > colonial legislatures couldn’t issue legal tender. (Paper Money)
      • Stamp Act > imposed a tax on all legal documents and other items,

- Must have a stamp from the British Treasury

I.e. licenses of protecting professionals, land transfers, exports and imports, private contracts, newspapers, college diplomas, playing cards

(Show Video: Popular Sovereignty)

section 2 independence9
Section 2: Independence
  • Ideals that influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence:
    • unalienable rights of human beings, (T. Jefferson)

> Rights that cannot be taken away

    • protection of citizens’ natural rights, (John Locke)

>people create gov. to protect nat. rights (abuses power)

    • government ruled by consent of the people, (Locke, Paine)
    • safeguard of the public good

> Indictment of King George III, {Cruelties,Crimes, and illegal political acts against humanity. (Propaganda)

section 2 independence10
Section 2: Independence
  • Similarities among the governments of the newly independent states:
    • limited governments
    • annual elections
    • bicameral legislatures
    • representative legislatures
    • limited gubernatorial power
    • protection of individual rights
    • gender and race restrictions on voting rights
section 3 the first national government
Section 3: The First National Government
  • Objectives:
    • What were the powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation?
    • How did limits on its power weaken the national government under the Articles?
    • How did the states continue to struggle with unity after independence?
    • How did Shays’s Rebellion highlight the need for a stronger national government?
section 3 the first national government12
Section 3: The First National Government
  • Powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation:
    • to declare war (army and navy)
    • to conduct foreign policy (Ambassadors)
    • to borrow money (voluntary)
    • to settle disputes between states
    • Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
    • to manage relations between American Indians
section 3 the first national government13
Section 3: The First National Government
  • Weaknesses of the national government under the Articles:
    • no officials to carry out Congress’s laws (delegates)

> Unicameral, no independent exec. (tyranny)

    • no authority to enforce Congress’s laws

> afraid of too powerful nation gov. (committees)

    • no power of the purse
    • no national currency
    • no power to regulate foreign or domestic trade
    • no national court system
    • amendments easily blocked by one state
section 3 the first national government14
Section 3: The First National Government
  • Obstacles to the states’ unity after independence:
    • cultural differences (religious)
      • Baptist > R.I / Presbyterian > N.J. & Del
      • Settlers > various parts of the world (Unified Gov.)
    • economic differences (Under Unified Gov.)

a. Slavery (Nat. Rights)

- effect way of life (South & Slaves)

    • geographic isolation
section 3 the first national government15
Section 3: The First National Government
  • How Shays’s Rebellion proved the need for a stronger national government:
    • by showing government’s inability to maintain peace and order
    • by illustrating government’s inability to protect and promote the public good
section 4 the constitutional convention
Section 4: The Constitutional Convention
  • Objectives:
    • Who were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention?
    • What major competing plans of government did the convention delegates debate?
    • What were some of the compromises reached by the delegates?
section 4 the constitutional convention17
Section 4: The Constitutional Convention
  • Delegates to the Constitutional Convention:
    • Included many of the country’s educated, leaders, and political thinkers, such as:
      • 8 people who signed the Declaration of Independence
      • 7 people who participated in the First Continental Congress
      • 7 people who had been state governors
      • George Washington
      • Benjamin Franklin
      • Alexander Hamilton
      • James Madison
section 4 the constitutional convention18
Section 4: The Constitutional Convention
  • Rival plans of government debated by the convention delegates:
    • Virginia Plan— (Madison) 3 separate branches (leg,exec,jud)

- Bicameral > House/gen pop, Sen/state leg

- Powers left over goes to state

- veto state laws that conflicted nat. law

- Exec veto Congress/ Judiciary be overridden by both houses

    • New Jersey Plan (Patterson) Unicameral

- Fed. Exec (more than one) no veto powers (chosen by congress)

Questioned how the states should be represented in Congress

(Population, financial contributions, or state equality)

Other points: Choosing a president & limits on the new powers of central gov.

section 4 the constitutional convention19
Section 4: The Constitutional Convention
  • Great Compromise:
    • bicameral legislature
    • representation in the House of Representatives based on population and elected directly by the people
    • two state representatives in the Senate, who were elected by state legislatures
    • majority votes by House of Representatives and the Senate needed to pass laws
    • South important to Ratifying (Slavery > 3/5 Comp)
section 5 ratifying the constitution
Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
  • Objectives:
    • What were the main arguments in the debate over ratification of the Constitution?
    • What role did a bill of rights play in the debate?
    • Which key states were among the last to ratify the Constitution?
section 5 ratifying the constitution21
Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
  • Debate over ratification of the Constitution:
    • Antifederalists
      • would create too powerful a national government

- thought the states were strong enough to realize objectives of each

      • concerned that a strong executive too closely resembled a monarch
      • included no bill of rights
    • Federalists
      • limited the national government’s power with a system of checks and balances by the three branches
      • guaranteed any unlisted powers of the national government to the states or the people
section 5 ratifying the constitution22
Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
  • Role of the bill of rights in the debate:
    • concern that individual rights would go unprotected without a bill of rights
    • fears that an overly powerful and unjust national government would be created without a bill of rights
    • argued that no bill of rights was necessary because the Constitution limited the powers of the national government to those listed
section 5 ratifying the constitution23
Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
  • Last key states to ratify the Constitution:
    • Virginia
    • New York
    • North Carolina
chapter wrap up

1. Explain the importance of a written constitution.

2. Which key documents limited the power of English monarchs and how did they do it?

3.How did Benjamin Franklin try to bring unity to the country during the conflict between Britain and France?

4. In the Declaration of Independence, what rights did Thomas Jefferson consider “unalienable”?

Chapter Wrap-Up

chapter wrap up25

5.How did the Constitution address the weaknesses of the Articles?

6. What role did compromise play in the Constitutional Convention?

7.Why did delegates compromise on a bicameral Congress?

8.During the ratification battle in New York, how did the Federalists explain the principals of American constitutional government and try to win supporters?

Chapter Wrap-Up