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Lecithins - Products - - Applications - - Markets -. Degussa Food Ingredients April 2004. 1. Genera l and Legal Definitions. 3. 2. Produc tion Processes. Composition of Lecithin. 4. 5. Applications. Markets. Lecithin. General and legal definitions. What is Lecithin?.

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lecithins products applications markets

Lecithins - Products - - Applications - - Markets -

  • Degussa Food Ingredients
  • April 2004
slide2

1

General and Legal Definitions

3

2

Production Processes

Composition of Lecithin

4

5

Applications

Markets

Lecithin

what is lecithin

General and legal definitions

What is Lecithin?

Lecithin (historical) = Lipids from plant or animal origin containing phosphorus

Lecithin (scientific) = Phosphatidylcholine (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine)

Lecithin (commercial) = Mixture of polar and nonpolar lipids with minimum 60% A.I. (acetone insolubles), E-No. 322

e 322 lecithins 1

General and legal definitions

E 322 - Lecithins (1)
  • Lecithins are mixtures or fractions of phospholipids which are obtained from animal or vegetable food stuffs by physical processes.
  • They also include hydrolized substances which are obtained by the use of harmless and suitable enzymes. The finished product is not allowed to show any residual enzyme activity.
  • Lecithin may be bleached in an aqueous medium by hydrogen peroxide, but this may not affect the phospholipids of lecithin chemically.
e 322 lecithins 2

Acetone insoluble substances

min. 60%

min. 56%

Acid Value

(potassium hydroxide/g)

< 35mg

< 45mg

Toluene insoluble substances

Volatile Substances

(after 1h drying at 105°C)

Peroxide Value

(mequ/kg)

Consistency

Colour

General and legal definitions

E 322 - Lecithins (2)

Content / Appearence

Lecithin

Hydrolized Lecithin

< 0.3%

< 2%

10 or less

highly viscous, semiliquid or powder

light brown to brown

slide6

1

General and Legal Definitions

2

Composition of Lecithin

3

Production Processes

4

5

Applications

Markets

Lecithin

composition

P

O

P

L

H

O

A

S

R

P

H

L

O

L

I

I

I

P

P

Glycolipids

I

N

I

D

S

D

S

S

O

L

U

B

L

E

Composition of lecithin

Composition

Other Phospholipids

PA = Phospatidic Acid

A

C

E

PI = Phosphatidylinositol

T

NEUTRAL

LIPIDS

O

PA

N

PI

E

PE

PE = Phosphatidylethanolamin

PC

CARBOHYDRATES

PC =Phosphatidylcholin

phospholipid structure

Triglyceride

CH2

CH

Basic phospholipid structure

CH2

CH2

CH

O

H2C-O-P-O-X

O

Composition of lecithin

Phospholipid structure
phospholipid structure9

Basic phospholipid structure

HO

OH

phosphatidylinositol (PI)

X=

CH2

OH

CH

O

H2C-O-P-O-X

O

HO

HO

inositol

X=

phosphatidic acid (PA)

H

hydrogen

CH

3

X=

+

phosphatidylcholine (PC)

CH

CH

CH

N

2

2

3

3

choline

CH

X=

phosphatidylserine (PS)

CH

CH

COOH

2

NH

2

serine

+

NH

CH

CH

X=

phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)

3

2

2

ethanolamine

Composition of lecithin

Phospholipid structure
phospholipids the active components of lecithin

Polar Headgroup

hydrophilic

Glycerol “Backbone”

lipophilic

Fatty Acid Chains

Composition of lecithin

Phospholipids:The active components of lecithin
phospholipid sources
Phospholipid sources
  • That means:Phospholipids are part of all living organisms and can be obtained from these (plants, animals, micro-organisms)
  • Commercial sources:oil seeds (soybeans, sunflower, rapeseed)egg yolk

Phospholipids are essential components of all cell membranes

slide12

1

General and Legal Definition

2

Composition of Lecithin

3

Production Processes

4

5

Applications

Markets

Lecithin

oil mill

Protein 42.0%

Carbohydrates 26.0%

Water 12.5%

Fat 19.0%

Lecithin 0.5%

Soybean

cleaning

crushing

Extracted meal

Miscella

solvent extraction

filtration

solvent evaporation

Crude Soybean Oil

Lecithin Sludge

Crude Lecithin

water

evaporation

+ water

separator

Purification Standardization

Fractionation Deoiling

Soybean Oil

(Degummed)

Production process

Oil Mill

^^

degussa texturant systems

Standard raw material

NGM raw material

Liquid raw material

Liquid raw material

modification

modification

standardization

standardization

acetylation

acetylation

hydrolysation

hydrolysation

hydroxilation

hydroxilation

ethanol

extraction

ethanol

extraction

compounding

compounding

Topcithin NGM

Topcithin NGM Premium

Topcithin 50,

200,300

Emulfluid A

Emulfluid NGM

Emulfluid E

Emulfluid HL 33

Emulfluid F30 IP

Chocotop 320 IP

Emulfluid F25/ 30

Chocotop 320

Metarin S40 NGMChocotop 120 NGM

Metarin F/FMChocotop 120

Acetone extraction

Acetone extraction

Emultop IP

Lecimulthin 150 IP

Emultop HL 50 IP

Metarin CP IP

Emulpur IP

Lecimulthin 100 IP

Nutripur P IP

Emultop

Lecimulthin 150

Emultop HL 50

Metarin CP

Emulpur N

Lecimulthin 100

Metarin P

Production process

Degussa Texturant Systems
standardization

Production process

Standardization
  • Principle:
    • adjusting of product parameters

(e.g. microbiology, viscosity, E 322)

    • purifying (filtration)
    • selecting
    • blending
  • Advantages:
    • reproducible product quality
    • improved transparency
    • constant behaviour in final application
ethanol extraction

Production process

Ethanol extraction
  • Principle:
    • difference in solubility of the phospholipids in ethanolPC soluble PI insoluble PE partly soluble PA insoluble
    • PC enriched and PC depleted fractions are produced
  • Advantages:
    • less flavour effect by PC-enriched fraction as lower dosage can be used compared to standard lecithin
    • clear solubility in oil
    • improved functionality in various applications when used at same dose as standard lecithin
modification hydrolysation

Production process

Modification - Hydrolysation
  • Advantages:
    • increased water dispersibility
    • less amount necessary to reduce surface tension
    • better o/w emulsion formation properties
    • complex formation with starch  anti staling agent (dough)

Principle:

Enzymatic Hydrolysis

acetone extraction deoiling

Other Phospholipids

PA = Phospatidic Acid

PI = Phosphatidylinositol

PI = Phosphatidylinositol

NEUTRAL

LIPIDS

PA = Phospatidic Acid

A

A

PA

PE = Phosphatidylethanolamin

C

C

P

P

PI

E

E

O

O

P

P

L

L

H

H

T

T

PI

PE

O

O

A

A

PA

PE

O

O

S

S

R

R

PC

PE = Phosphatidylethanolamin

P

P

N

N

PC

H

CARBOHYDRATS

H

L

L

O

O

Other Phospholipids

CARBOHYDRATS

Glycolipids

L

L

I

I

I

I

I

I

P

P

P

P

Glycolipids

Glycolipids

I

I

N

N

I

I

D

D

PC =Phosphatidylcholin

S

S

D

D

S

S

PC =Phosphatidylcholin

S

S

O

O

L

L

U

U

B

B

L

L

E

E

Production process

Acetone extraction - deoiling
acetone extraction deoiling19

Production process

Acetone extraction - deoiling
  • Principle:
    • non polar lipids (triglycerides) are acetone soluble
    • thus a separation from polar lipids (phospho- andglycolipids) is possible resulting in powderedconsistency
  • Advantages:
    • increased water dispersibilitycompared to liquid lecithin
    • less influence on taste and colour
    • easier dosing
    • increased amount of activesubstances

i.e. less lecithinaddition necessary

degussa texturant systems20

Standard raw material

Liquid raw material

modification

acetylation

hydrolysation

hydroxilation

Acetone extraction

Emultop

Lecimulthin 150

Emultop HL 50

Emultop IP

Lecimulthin 150 IP

Emultop HL 50 IP

Metarin CP

Metarin CP IP

Emulpur N

Lecimulthin 100

Metarin P

Emulpur IP

Lecimulthin 100 IP

Nutripur P IP

Metarin P IP

Production process

Degussa Texturant Systems

NGM raw material

standardization

ethanol

extraction

compounding

conventional and NGM / IP liquid lecithins

conventional acetylated lecithin

conventional and NGM / IP hydrolysed lecithin

conventional hydroxilated lecithin

conventional and NGM / IP lecithin fractions

conventional and NGM / IP lecithins compounds

production plants
Production Plants

Germany Hamburg

Netherlands Zaandam

Italy Vigonza

USA Decatur

production plants and processes
Production Plants and Processes

Process / Plant

Germany

USA

Netherland

Italy

Selection

X

X

X

X

Standardization

X

X

X

X

Purification

X

X

X

X

Blending

X

X

X

X

Chemical Modification

X

Enzymatic Modification

X

Fractionation

X

Deoiling

X

Compounding

X

Quanitiy 2003 [tons]

6,500 (+2,750)

10,000

14,000

1,700

slide23

1

General and Legal Definition

2

Compositionof Lecithin

3

Production Processes

4

Applications

5

Markets

Lecithin

product range and branding philosophy
Product Range and Branding Philosophy
  • Topcithin (fluid) Various applications
  • Metarin (fluid, powder) Instantizing
  • Chocotop (fluid) Chocolate
  • Emulthin (powder) Flour Improver
  • Lecimulthin (powder) Bakery
product range and branding philosophy25
Product Range and Branding Philosophy
  • Emulfluid (fluid) Emulsions
  • Emulpur / Emultop (powder) Emulsions
  • Emulbesto (fluid) Feed
  • Nutripur (powder) Feed
  • Epikuron (various) Dietetic / Pharma
  • Ovothin (various) Egg Lecithins
confectionary chocolate

Main lecithin effect: viscosity reduction and yield point depression/adjustment in chocolate mass

  • influence on
  • viscosity yield point
  • Liquid (Topcithin 50) 
  • Fractionation
  • PC enriched (Chocotop 320)  
  • Compounding
  • + E 476 (Chocotop 120)  
  • (Chocotop 135)  
  • + E 442 (Chocotop 200)  

Application

Confectionary - chocolate
instant products

Application

Instant products
  • Main lecithin effect: coat formation around the instant powder
          •  increased wettability and solubility

Liquid (Metarin F/ FM)   ready to spray on the product

Deoiling (Metarin P)  product becomes water dispersible lecithination / agglomeration in one step less influence on odour and taste

+ PC-enrichment (Metarin CP)  less lecithin necessary for same effect better wetting properties at same dose

oils and fats margarine

Application

Oils and fats - margarine
  • Liquid (Topcithin 300)  good anti spattering effectat high salt content (0.3 %)
  • Hydrolysed (Emulfluid E)  anti spattering effect at low salt content (0.15 %)
  • PC-enriched(min. 23 % PC Emulfluid F 25)  good anti spattering agent
  • (min. 32 % PC Emulfluid F 30)  very good anti spattering agent

Main lecithin effect: film formation around water droplets

 prevents coalescence during heating

 anti spattering effect

oils and fats margarine 2

Application

Oils and fats - margarine (2)
  • release agent
          • Metarin FM
          • Topcithin 300
          • Emulfluid F 25
          • Emulfluid F 30
  • antioxidant
  • flavour release
  • co- emulsifier

Further lecithin effects:

delicatessen meat products

Application

Delicatessen / Meat products
  • De-oiled (Emulpur N)  less influence on taste/ odour
  • Hydrolysed (Emultop)  improved emulsifying properties heat stability acid stability of food emulsions

Main lecithin effects: stabilizer emulsifier

facilitates dispersion/ distribution

animal feed

Granulated (Nutripur G) improved flowability

  • + Flow aid (Nutripur S)  easier dosing and mixing better functionality

Application

Animal feed
  • Main lecithin effects: emulsifier (technological) improved wettability and dispersibility decreased dust formation improved pellet structure antioxidant
  • De-oiled (Nutripur P)
dietary supplements pharma

Application

Dietary Supplements & Pharma
  • Main lecithin effects: Cholesterole Control
  • Liver Treatment
  • Brain Function
  • Supplementation of LCPUFAs
  • Emulsifier in Enteral and Parenteral
  • Nutrition
  • EPIKURON 100 Range Standard de-oiled, Cholesterole control
  • EPIKURON 130 / 135 F Fractionated, de-oiled or fluid, liver treatment
  • Leci-PS Range Phosphatidylserin, powder or liquid, brainfunction
  • EPIKURON 145/170/200 Emulsifier in parenteral preparations
  • OVOTHIN Range LCPUFA supplementation in Infant Nutrition
slide33

1

General and Legal Definition

2

Compositionof Lecithin

3

Production Processes

4

Applications

5

Markets

Lecithin

position of d fd

World Lecithin Market

D-FD Lecithin Market

Markets

Position of D-FD

Our Market Share: 36,000 tons, ~ 20%

Total Market: ~ 180,000 tons

position of d fd35

D-FD Market: Volumes

D-FD Market: Turnover

Markets

Position of D-FD

36,000 tons

58,000 k€ in 2003