Wind Energy: Applications and Markets - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

wind energy applications and markets n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Wind Energy: Applications and Markets PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Wind Energy: Applications and Markets

play fullscreen
1 / 73
Wind Energy: Applications and Markets
234 Views
Download Presentation
base
Download Presentation

Wind Energy: Applications and Markets

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Wind Energy: Applications and Markets Tony Jimenez 2 March 2005 Boulder, CO

  2. WindPowering America

  3. Presentation Overview • Wind Turbine Applications • Wind Turbine Topologies • Wind Characteristics & Energy Potential • Estimating Turbine Energy Production • Wind Industry History • Why Wind? • Government Policies • Wind Issues & Myths

  4. Wind Turbine Applications

  5. Sizes and Applications • Small (10 kW) • Homes • Farms • Remote Applications • (e.g. water pumping, telecom sites, icemaking) • Intermediate • (10-250 kW) • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power • Large (660 kW - 2+MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Community Wind

  6. Large and Small Wind Turbines are Different Large Turbines (600-2000 kW) • Installed in “Windfarm” Arrays Totaling 1 - 100 MW • High voltage delivery • $1,000/kW; Designed for Low Cost of Energy • Requires 6 m/s (13 mph) average wind speed • Value of Energy: $0.02 - $0.06 per kWh Small Turbines (0.3-100 kW) • Installed in “Rural Residential” On-Grid and Off-Grid Applications • Low voltage delivery • $2,500-5,000/kW; Designed for Reliability / Low Maintenance • Requires 4 m/s (9 mph) average wind speed • Value of Energy: $0.06 - $0.26 per kWh

  7. Utility Scale Wind Energy Technology At it’s simplest, the wind turns the turbine’s blades, which spin a shaft connected to a generator that makes electricity. Large turbines can be grouped together to form a wind power plant, which feeds power to the electrical transmission system.

  8. 10 kW 50 kW 900 W 400 W Small Wind Turbines • Configuration:Up-wind, horizontal axis, 2 or 3 blades, aligned with wind by the tail • Blades:Fiber-reinforced plastics, fixed pitch, either twisted/tapered, or straight (pultruded) • Generator:Direct-drive permanent magnet alternator, no brushes, 3-phase AC, variable-speed operation • Overspeed Protection:Passive furling(rotor turns out of the wind), no brakes • Result:– Simple, rugged design– Only 2–4 moving parts– Little regular maintenance required 02770341

  9. Off-Grid Home with Wind/PV System • West of Boulder, CO, at 9,000 ft • Bergey 1500 wind turbine, 1.5 kW, 70 ft tower • Solarex PV panels, 480 W • 24 VDC battery, 375 Ah • Onan generator, propane-fueled, 3 kW (at altitude) • Trace inverter, 120 VAC, 1 phase • Propane used for range, refrigeration, space heat, hot water (w/solar pre-heat) • First wind turbine installed in 1978, fourth wind turbine now in service • PV installed 1984 w/ tax credits • System cost about $20,000

  10. On-Grid Home with Wind System • Tehachapi, CA, net metering for utility bill reduction • Bergey Excel wind turbine,23 ft rotor, 10 kW • Total installed cost was $34,122 in October 1999 • California Buy-Down Program, $16,871 cash rebate • Estimated payback: 8 years

  11. On-Grid Farm with Wind System • Southwestern Kansas • Utility bill reduction • Bergey Windpower Excel wind turbine10 kW, 23 ft rotor, 100 ft tower • ~21,000 kWh/year generation, utility bill savings ~$2,800/year • Installed in early 1980s, ~$20,000, received federal tax credit • Maintenance costs $50/year • One lightning strike, damage was covered by farm insurance

  12. Orland, Maine • Turbine Size: 50 kW • Turbine Manufacturer: Atlantic Orient Corp. • Developer/owner: G.M. Allen & Sons Blueberry Processing Plant • Application: Net-metering for utility bill reduction

  13. Selawik, Alaska • 4 x 50 kW Wind Turbines • Turbine Manufacturer: AOC • Developer/Owner: AVEC • Capacity: 200 kW

  14. Hull, Massachusetts • Turbine Size: 660 kW • Turbine Manufacturer: Vestas • Developer/Owner: Hull Municipal Lighting Plant • Capacity: .66 MW

  15. Ponnequin, Colorado • Turbine Manufacturer: Vestas, NEG Micon • Developer/owner: DisGen/Xcel Energy • Turbine Size: 660-750 kW • Capacity: 31.5 MW • Commissioned: 1999

  16. Wind Turbine Topologies

  17. Wind Turbine Topologies • Drag vs Lift machines • Horizontal Axis vs Vertical Axis • Upwind vs Downwind • Two vs Three blades

  18. Drag Machines

  19. Lift Machines

  20. HAWT VAWT TYPES

  21. Downwind & Upwind

  22. TURBINE DIAGRAM

  23. NACELLE 1 MW

  24. BLADE 27 m length 2 ROTOR AREA = 2460 m

  25. Wind Characteristics & Energy Potential

  26. Importance of “Micro-Siting”

  27. CONTINENTAL TRADE WINDS WIND ROSE

  28. WIND SHEAR Height Wind Speed, m/s m 12.6 50 12.2 40 11.7 30 11 20 10 10 8.8 5 0 SURFACE

  29. ENERGY AND POWER ENERGY, ABILITY TO DO WORK ENERGY = FORCE * DISTANCE Electrical Energy , kWh POWER = ENERGY/TIME Generator Size, kW

  30. P - power, watts - density of air, kg/m3 v - wind speed, m/s A - area, m2 (A =  D2 / 4) Power in the Wind P = 0.5  v3 A

  31. Power Density Power Density = P/A = 0.5  v3 Wind Class W/m2 at 50 m Wind speed at 50 m 1 0 - 199 0 - 5.9 m/s 2 200 - 299 5.9 - 6.7 m/s 3 300 - 399 6.7 - 7.4 m/s 4 400 - 499 7.4 - 7.9 m/s 5 500 - 599 7.9 - 8.4 m/s 6 600 - 800 8.4 - 9.3 m/s 7 > 800 > 9.3 m/s

  32. Wind Speed Distribution

  33. Estimating Turbine Energy Production

  34. Calculation of Wind Turbine Power Power from a wind turbine = Cp ½  A V3 • Effect of wind speed, V • Effect of rotor diameter on swept areaA = Pi D2 / 4 • Effect of elevation and temperature on air density,  • Limits on power coefficient (efficiency): Cp= 0.2 - 0.4 (theoretical max = 0.59)

  35. Calculating Turbine Output • Get wind resource data (wind speed distribution) • Scale data to wind turbine hub height [v2 = v1 * (h2/h1)] •  = 0.14 (0.1 - 0.3) (wind shear) • Multiply the wind speed distribution by the wind turbine power curve • Adjust for elevation (multiply by fraction of sea level pressure)

  36. Calculating Turbine Output

  37. Wind Turbine Performance • Small & Medium Wind Turbines • 10% - 25% Capacity Factor • 10 kW WTG @ 12% Cap Factor ==> 10,500 kWh/year • Large Wind Turbines • 25% - 40% • 1.5 MW WTG @ 35% Cap Factor ==> 4,600,000 kWh/year

  38. Characteristics of a Good Wind Site • Good Wind Resource • Adequate Transmission • Reasonable Road Access • Permitting • Receptive Community • Few Environmental Concerns

  39. Wind Industry History

  40. Wind Turbine History • Pre-Modern • Middle Ages • Dutch: water pumping & grinding grain • 1880s: Water Pumpers (U.S) • 1920s - 1930s: Electricity for Farms • Modern • Late 70s / Early 80s in CA, Denmark • Europe (1990s - present) • U.S. (late 1990s - present)

  41. GE WIND 3.6 MW GE WIND 1.5 MW

  42. World Growth Market Total Installed Wind Capacity 1. Germany: 15,600 MW 2. United States: 6,400 MW 3. Spain: 7,000 MW 4. Denmark: 3100 MW 5. India: 2,200 MW World total (June 2004): 42,100 MW Source: WindPower Monthly

  43. Installed Wind Capacities (99-04)

  44. Current Trends • Move towards ever larger machines • Offshore • More financial players • More countries • Low wind speed turbines (U.S.) • Green energy and green tags

  45. International Market Trends • $5 billion/year in sales • Fastest growing electric technology: 29% worldwide • 45% world market from Danish companies • European future in off-shore open installations • 86 MW in 2000 • Growing to 2400 MW’s in 2005* • *Source BTM Consult ApS - March 2001

  46. International Market Drivers • Europe • high mandated purchase rates (85-90% of retail, 10-12 cents/kWh) • strong government and public commitment to the environment, including climate change • population density & existing developments driving off shore deployment in Europe • Developing World • huge capacity needs • lack of existing infrastructure (grid) • pressure for sustainable development (IDB’s, climate change) • tied aid

  47. Offshore Wind • Why? • Close to load centers, avoids transmission • On-shore NIMBY, better wind resource • 30-50% higher cost at 30’ depth • Permitting processes evolving • U.S. issues • Less shallow water than Europe • More extreme wave and hurricane design conditions • Ice in great lakes

  48. Why Wind?

  49. Why Wind? • Declining Wind Costs • Fuel Price Uncertainty • Federal and State Policies • Economic Development • Green Power • Energy Security

  50. Cost of Energy Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh • Increased Turbine Size • R&D Advances • Manufacturing Improvements NSP 107 MW Lake Benton wind farm 4 cents/kWh (unsubsidized) 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh