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Introduction to the Web and .NET Internet Technologies The World Wide Web A way to access and share information Technical papers, marketing materials, recipes, ... A huge network of computers: the Internet Graphical, not just textual Information is linked to other information

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internet technologies the world wide web
Internet Technologies The World Wide Web
  • A way to access and share information
    • Technical papers, marketing materials, recipes, ...
  • A huge network of computers: the Internet
  • Graphical, not just textual
  • Information is linked to other information
  • Application development platform
    • Shop from home
    • Provide self-help applications for customers and partners
    • ...
internet technologies www architecture
Internet TechnologiesWWW Architecture

PC/Mac/Unix + Browser

Client

Request:

http://www.msn.com/default.asp

TCP/IP

Network

Response:

<html>…</html>

Web Server

Server

internet technologies www architecture4
Internet TechnologiesWWW Architecture
  • Client/Server, Request/Response architecture
    • You request a Web page
      • e.g. http://www.msn.com/default.asp
      • HTTP request
    • The Web server responds with data in the form of a Web page
      • HTTP response
      • Web page is expressed as HTML
    • Pages are identified as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
      • Protocol: http
      • Web server: www.msn.com
      • Web page: default.asp
      • Can also provide parameters: ?name=Leon
internet technologies hypertext markup language html
Internet TechnologiesHypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • The markup language used to represent Web pages for viewing by people
    • Designed to display data, not store/transfer data
  • Rendered and viewed in a Web browser
  • Can contain links to images, documents, and other pages
  • Not extensible
  • Derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
  • HTML 3.2, 4.01, XHTML 1.0
internet technologies html forms
Internet TechnologiesHTML Forms
  • Enables you to create interactive user interface elements
    • Buttons
    • Text boxes
    • Drop down lists
    • Check boxes
  • User fills out the form and submits it
  • Form data is sent to the Web server via HTTP when the form is submitted
internet technologies http
Internet TechnologiesHTTP
  • HTTP is a stateless protocol
  • Each HTTP request is independent of previous and subsequent requests
  • HTTP 1.1 introduced keep-alive for efficiency
  • Statelessness has a big impact on how scalable applications are designed
internet technologies cookies
Internet TechnologiesCookies
  • A mechanism to store a small amount of information (up to 4KB) on the client
  • A cookie is associated with a specific web site
  • Cookie is sent in HTTP header
  • Cookie is sent with each HTTP request
  • Can last for only one session (until browser is closed) or can persist across sessions
  • Can expire some time in the future
internet technologies multipurpose internet mail extensions mime
Internet TechnologiesMultipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
  • Defines types of data/documents
    • text/plain
    • text/html
    • image/gif
    • image/jpeg
    • audio/x-pn-realaudio
    • audio/x-ms-wma
    • video/x-ms-asf
    • application/octet-stream
internet technologies browsers
Internet TechnologiesBrowsers
  • Client-side application
  • Requests HTML from Web server and renders it
  • Popular browsers:
    • Netscape
    • Internet Explorer
    • Opera
    • others
  • Also known as a User Agent
internet technologies clients servers
Internet TechnologiesClients & Servers
  • Clients
    • Generally supports a single user
    • Optimized for responsiveness to user
    • User interface, graphics
  • Servers
    • Supports multiple users
    • Optimized for throughput
    • More: CPUs (SMP), memory, disks (SANs), I/O
    • Provide services (e.g. Web, file, print, database, e-mail, fax, transaction, telnet, directory)
internet technologies proxy servers firewalls
Internet TechnologiesProxy Servers & Firewalls
  • Proxy Server
    • A server that sits between a client (running a browser) and the Internet
    • Improves performance by caching commonly used Web pages
    • Can filter requests to prevent users from accessing certain Web sites
  • Firewall
    • A server that sits between a network and the Internet to prevent unauthorized access to the network from the Internet
internet technologies networks
Internet TechnologiesNetworks
  • Network = an interconnected collection of independent computers
  • Why have networks?
    • Resource sharing
    • Reliability
    • Cost savings
    • Communication
  • Web technologies add:
    • New business models: e-commerce, advertising
    • Entertainment
    • Applications without a client-side install
internet technologies networks14
Internet TechnologiesNetworks
  • Network technology is largely determined by scale:
    • Local Area Network (LAN): Span up to a few kilometers. Bus vs. ring topologies
    • Wide Area Networks (WAN): Can span a country or continent. WANs use routers as intermediate nodes to connect transmission lines
internet technologies networks15
Internet TechnologiesNetworks
  • Network technology
    • Broadcasting
      • Packets of data are sent from one machine and received by all computers on the network
      • Multicast: packets are received by a subset of the machines on a network
    • Point-to-point
      • Packets have to be routed from one machine to another; there many be many paths
    • In general, geographically localized networks use broadcasting, while disperse networks use point-to-point
internet technologies networks16
Internet TechnologiesNetworks

OSI Model Layers

TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Layers

TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Application

Layer

Presentation

Layer

Application

Layer

Telnet

FTP

SMTP

DNS

RIP

SNMP

HTTP

Session

Layer

Host-to-Host

Transport

Layer

TCP

UDP

Transport

Layer

Network

Layer

Internet

Layer

IP

IGMP

ICMP

ARP

Data Link

Layer

Network

Interface

Layer

Ethernet

Token

Ring

Frame

Relay

ATM

Physical

Layer

internet technologies network protocol stack
Internet TechnologiesNetwork Protocol Stack

HTTP

HTTP

TCP

TCP

IP

IP

Ethernet

Ethernet

internet technologies networks domain name system dns
Internet TechnologiesNetworks - Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Provides user-friendly domain names, e.g. www.msn.com
  • Hierarchical name space with limited root names
  • DNS servers map domain names to IP addresses
  • .com
  • .net
  • .gov
  • .edu
  • .org
  • .mil
  • .jp
  • .de
internet technologies extensible markup language xml
Internet TechnologiesExtensible Markup Language (XML)
  • Represents hierarchical data
  • A meta-language: a language for defining other languages
  • Extensible
  • Useful for data exchange and transformation
  • Simplified version of SGML
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Machine code
  • Assembly language
  • High-level languages
    • Fortran, LISP, Cobol
    • C, Pascal, Basic, Smalltalk
    • C++, Eiffel
    • Java, C#
  • Scripting languages
    • Shell scripts, Perl, TCL, Python, JavaScript, VBScript
programming paradigms
Programming Paradigms
  • Unstructured programming
  • Structured programming
  • Object-oriented programming
  • Component-based programming
  • Event-based programming
programming paradigms unstructured programming
Programming ParadigmsUnstructured Programming
  • See “Go To Statement Considered Harmful” at http://www.acm.org/classics/oct95/
programming paradigms structured programming
Sequence

Conditional

if then else

switch

Looping

for i from 1 to n

do while

do until

Functions

Exceptions

Programming ParadigmsStructured Programming
programming paradigms object oriented programming
Programming ParadigmsObject-Oriented Programming
  • Objects have data and behavior
    • Data: members, fields, variables, slots, properties
    • Behavior: methods, functions, procedures
  • Using objects is easy
    • First instantiate the type of object desired
    • Then call its methods and get/set its properties
  • Designing new types of objects can be hard
    • Design goals often conflict: simplicity, functionality, reuse, performance
programming paradigms object oriented programming25
Programming ParadigmsObject-Oriented Programming
  • Key object-oriented concepts
    • Identity
    • Encapsulation
      • Data + behavior
      • Information hiding (abstraction)
    • Classes vs. instances
    • Polymorphism
    • Interfaces
    • Delegation, aggregation
    • Inheritance
    • Patterns
programming paradigms component based programming
Programming ParadigmsComponent-Based Programming
  • Components
    • Independent modules of reuse and deployment
    • Coarser-grained than objects (objects are language-level constructs)
    • Includes multiple classes
    • Often language-independent
  • In the general case, the component writer and the component user don’t know each other, don’t work for the same company, and don’t use the same language
programming paradigms component based programming27
Programming ParadigmsComponent-Based Programming
  • Component Object Model (COM)
    • Initial Microsoft standard for components
    • Specifies a protocol for instantiating and using components in-process, across processes or across machine boundaries
    • Basis for ActiveX, OLE, and many other technologies
    • Can be created in Visual Basic, C++, .NET, …
  • Java Beans
    • Java standard for components
    • Not language-independent
programming paradigms event based programming
Programming ParadigmsEvent-Based Programming
  • When something of interest occurs, an event is raised and application-specific code is executed
  • Events provide a way for you to hook in your own code into the operation of another system
  • Event = callback
  • User interfaces are all about events
    • onClick, onMouseOver, onMouseMove…
  • Events can also be based upon time or interactions with the network, operating system, other applications, etc.
programming the web client side code
Programming the WebClient-Side Code
  • What is client-side code?
    • Software that is downloaded from Web server to browser and then executes on the client
  • Why client-side code?
    • Better scalability: less work done on server
    • Better performance/user experience
    • Create UI constructs not inherent in HTML
      • Drop-down and pull-out menus
      • Tabbed dialogs
    • Cool effects, e.g. animation
    • Data validation
programming the web client side technologies
Programming the WebClient-Side Technologies
  • DHTML/JavaScript
  • COM
    • ActiveX controls
    • COM components
    • Remote Data Services (RDS)
  • Java
  • Plug-ins
  • Helpers
  • Remote Scripting
programming the web dynamic html dhtml
Programming the WebDynamic HTML (DHTML)
  • Script that is embedded within an HTML page
  • Usually written in JavaScript (ECMAScript, JScript) for portability
    • Internet Explorer also supports VBScript and other scripting languages
  • Each HTML element becomes an object that has associated events (e.g. onClick)
  • Script provides code to respond to browser events
programming the web activex
Programming the WebActiveX
  • Based on COM
  • Native only to Internet Explorer
    • Supported in Netscape with a plug-in
  • Good when you know your users (e.g. intranet) or can specify which browser to use
  • Small, efficient code
programming the web java applets
Programming the WebJava Applets
  • Based on Java bytecode
  • Held great promise as a portable, pain-free way to download client-side code:
    • “Write once, run anywhere”
  • Fairly safe: code runs in a “sandbox”
  • Compatibility and performance issues have prevented common usage
programming the web server side technologies
Programming the WebServer-Side Technologies
  • Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
  • Internet Server API (ISAPI)
  • Netscape Server API (NSAPI)
  • Active Server Pages (ASP)
  • Java Server Pages (JSP)
  • Personal Home Page (PHP)
  • Cold Fusion (CFM)
  • ASP.NET
programming the web active server pages asp
Programming the Web Active Server Pages (ASP)
  • Technology to easily create server-side applications
  • ASP pages are written in a scripting language, usually VBScript or JScript
  • An ASP page contains a sequence of static HTML interspersed with server-side code
  • ASP script commonly accesses and updates data in a database
programming the web asp

HTTP request

(form data, HTTP header data)

HTTP responseHTML, XML

Programming the WebASP

ASP page

(static HTML, server-side logic)

introduction to net what is net
Introduction to .NETWhat is .NET?
  • A vision of how information technology will evolve
  • A platform that supports the vision
  • A business model of software as a service
introduction to net what is net38
Introduction to .NETWhat is .NET?
  • A vision
    • Web sites will be joined by Web services
    • New smart devices will join the PC
    • User interfaces will become more adaptable and customizable
    • Enabled by Web standards
introduction to net what is net39
Introduction to .NETWhat is .NET?
  • A platform
    • The .NET Framework
    • Visual Studio.NET
    • .NET Enterprise Servers
      • Database, Messaging, Integration, Commerce, Proxy, Security, Mobility, Orchestration, Content Management
    • .NET Building Block Services
      • Passport
      • .NET My Services (“Hailstorm”)
    • Goal: make it incredibly easy to build powerful Web applications and Web services

}

The focus of

this course

introduction to net the net platform

.NET FoundationWeb Services

Your InternalWeb Service

Third-PartyWeb Services

.NET EnterpriseServers

Clients

Applications

Web Form

Web Service

.NET Framework

Windows

Introduction to .NETThe .NET Platform

Protocols: HTTP,HTML, XML, SOAP, UDDI

Tools:Visual Studio.NET,Notepad

web services evolution of the web

HTML, XML

HTML, XML

HTML

HTML

Generation 1Static HTML

Generation 2Web Applications

Generation 3Web Services

Web ServicesEvolution of the Web
the net framework what is the net framework
The .NET FrameworkWhat Is the .NET Framework?
  • A set of technologies for developing and using components to create:
    • Web Forms
    • Web Services
    • Windows Applications
  • Supports the software lifecycle
    • Development
    • Debugging
    • Deployment
    • Maintenance
the net framework the net framework and visual studio net
The .NET FrameworkThe .NET Framework and Visual Studio.NET

VB

C++

C#

JScript

Common Language Specification

ASP.NET: Web Services

and Web Forms

WindowsForms

Visual Studio.NET

ADO.NET: Data and XML

.NET Framework Base Classes

Common Language Runtime

the net framework net framework classes

System.Windows.Forms

System.Web

Form

Button

Services

UI

Description

HtmlControls

MessageBox

ListControl

Discovery

WebControls

Protocols

System.Drawing

Caching

Security

Drawing2D

Printing

Configuration

SessionState

Imaging

Text

System.Data

System.Xml

OLEDB

SQL

XSLT

Serialization

Design

SQLTypes

XPath

System

Collections

IO

Security

Runtime

InteropServices

Configuration

Net

ServiceProcess

Remoting

Diagnostics

Reflection

Text

Serialization

Globalization

Resources

Threading

The .NET Framework.NET Framework Classes
common language runtime compilation

Source Code

Assembly

C++, C#, VB or any .NET language

DLL or EXE

Common Language RuntimeCompilation

Compiler

csc.exe or vbc.exe

windows forms
Framework for building rich clients

Built upon .NET Framework, languages

Rapid Application Development (RAD)

Visual inheritance

Anchoring and docking

Rich set of controls

Extensible controls

Data-aware

Easily hooked into Web Services

ActiveX support

Licensing support

Printing support

Advanced graphics

Windows Forms
web forms
Web Forms
  • Built with ASP.NET
    • Logical evolution of ASP
    • Similar development model: edit the page and go
  • Requires less code
  • New programming model
    • Event-driven/server-side controls
    • Rich controls (e.g. data grid, validation)
    • Data binding
    • Controls generate browser-specific code
    • Simplified handling of page state
languages c
LanguagesC#
  • New language created for .NET
  • Safe, productive evolution of C++
  • Key concepts:
    • Component-oriented
    • Everything is an object
    • Robust and durable code
    • Preserving your investment
  • Submitted to ECMA for standardization
  • Uses .NET Framework classes
languages visual basic net
LanguagesVisual Basic.NET
  • Modernizes and simplifies Visual Basic
    • Inheritance
    • Threading
    • Exception handling
  • Support for late binding
  • Uses .NET Framework classes
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Internet Technologies
  • Programming Languages and Paradigms
  • Programming the Web
  • .NET Overview