Imperial War Museum Fellowship in Holocaust Education: potential contribution of Geographers Debbie Moss Imperial War Museum Fellowship in Holocaust Education 2008-2009
Ensure clear understanding of term Holocaust Under the cover of the Second World War, for the sake of their ‘new order,’ the Nazis sought to destroy all the Jews of Europe. For the first time in history, industrial methods were used for the mass extermination of a whole people. Six million were murdered, including 1,500,000 children. This event is called the Holocaust. The Nazis enslaved and murdered millions of others as well. Gypsies, people with physical and mental disabilities, Poles, Soviet prisoners of war, trade unionists, political opponents, prisoners of conscience, homosexuals, and others were killed in vast numbers. Imperial War Museum London
What does programme involve? • Participation in summer institute at the Imperial War Museum London • Commit to developing own educational project • Attend follow-up programme at the International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem, in Jerusalem, during the summer half term 2009 • Particiapte in a study tour of the Holocaust in Poland and Lithuania
1. Describe what you can see in each photograph. 2. Now try to think of something which could link all photographs together, you might come up with more than one idea. Be prepared to explain your answer. 3. Explain what is happening in each photograph using as much specific vocabulary as possible relating to time, place and scale. 4. Now try to imagine that you are somebody who might be visiting the place in the photograph. Who are you? Why are you there? What would you be doing there? Where have you come from? What are you feeling? Who else would normally go to that place? When would they go? 5. Rank the photographs in order of significance. Be prepared to explain your ranking. 6. To what extent do these photographs enable pupils to engage with Holocaust education?
Why teach the Holocaust? Watershed event not only in 2oth century but in entire history of humanity Use and abuse of power/roles of individuals /organisations/nations when confronted with human rights violations/potential for genocide in modern world Ramifications of prejudice, racism, antisemitism, and stereotyping in society/ value of diversity in pluralistic society/ sensitivity to position of minorities How modern nation can utilise its technological expertise and bureaucratic infrastructure to implement destructive policies from social engineering to genocide Explore dangers of remaining silent/indifferent Students gain insight into convergence of many factors which can contribute to disintegration of democratic values-learn responsibility of citizens in democracy Cultural understanding-Holocaust become a central theme in culture of many countries-need to understand cultural manifestations
Potential of geography to contribute: • Understanding spatial patterns established throughout Holocaust • Understanding European countries in 21st century-addressing change as well as continuity, impact of Holocaust on identity of countries and individuals, encouraging understanding of multidimensional complexities of European countries and people in them today • Understanding potential of driving forces of climate change, globalisation, population increase, competition for space, racial tensions to bring about new genocides and encourage individual, community, national and global responsibility
ICT and Geography - PGCE Supplementary Studies The use of Digital Media Applications (DMA) to support learning about the Holocaust, linked to contemporary place and space. • Aims: • To develop a useful, interactive, multimedia starter activity, for use with year 9 pupils, to introduce the Holocaust through a link to contemporary places & spaces. Q8, 10, 17, 25a. • To develop a greater awareness of the issues around the teaching of the holocaust and other ‘sensitive’ topics in Citizenship, History & Geography and other areas of the curriculum. Q15. • To further develop skills and understanding of collaborative and cross-curricular work. Q4, 6, 32. • To further develop skills and understanding in the use of out of school contexts for learning. Q24.
Joint session with History, Geography and ICT students Making sense of the past / a place / an event / a multimedia resource Secondary sources interwoven Primary sources Our reading is shaped by our ‘positionality’ Meaning is made by our encounter Interpretations/representations Multiple narratives Salmons, 2008, adapted by Moss
Why and how do we teach about the past and places? What can we learn from the past, or about this place? Transmission of values How de we know about the past/places? Acquisition of skills Evidential Approach Narrative approach Narrative approach Should we be teaching young people What to think? How to think? or Salmons, 2008
‘…..human geography (the study of people and places) has the power to contribute to ways of understanding how one of the most shocking human tragedies happened. It can help account for part of the human condition and what it means to be European.’ Machon and Lambert, 2005
References Machon, P. and Lambert, D. (2005) Geography in the Holocaust: citizenship denied Teaching Geography, Vol 30, 3 Autumn Anderson, J. et al (2008) ‘What is geography’s contribution to making citizens?’ Geography, Spring 2008 Vol 93, part 1 Whitworth, W (ed) (2006) ‘WE SURVIVED GENOCIDE IN RWANDA: 28 personal testimonies.’ Quill Press and Aegis Trust Useful organisations: Beth Shalom Holocaust Memorial Centre Tel. 01623 836627 www.bethshalom.com Imperial War museum Tel. 020 7416 5269 www.iwm.org.uk/education/holocaust Holocaust Educational Trust Tel.020 7222 6822 Resources used in session: Children’s drawings taken from ‘I never saw another butterfly..(1993) Expanded Second Edition editied by Hana Volavkova published by Schocken Books, New York