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The Holocaust. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it…”. What was The Holocaust?.

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The Holocaust

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what was the holocaust
What was The Holocaust?
  • The Holocaust refers to a specific event in 20th century history where six million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime and their collaborators as a central act of state during World War II.
how it started
How it started
  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came to power
  • 1933 – 9 million Jews lived in 21 European countries that would become occupied by Germany during WWII
  • By 1945 2 out of 3 Jews would be dead
who was adolf hitler
Who was Adolf Hitler?
  • Served in German army during WWI in the front lines (decorated for bravery)
  • Became involved in politics and tried to seize power by force (crushed by police 1923)
  • Served time for high treason and then rose to power legitimately
  • Hatred of Jews
  • Worked to rid Germany of Versailles Treaty
  • Started WWII invaded Poland
other figures in nazi regime
Other figures in Nazi Regime
  • Henrich Himmler – SS leader/Chief of German police – responsible for implementing the Final Solution
  • Josef Mengele – ruthless/cruel doctor that conducted medical experiments on Jews
  • Julius Streicher – Earliest/loyal supporter of Hitler, propaganda publisher “The Stormer”
under the nazis
Under the Nazis…
  • 12, 000, 000 people, half of them Jews were murdered by the Germans because of hatred and the belief they were inferior
  • These people were killed by: shooting, starvation, disease, gas, torture, and medical experiments
who was targeted
Who was targeted?
  • Jews
  • People with mental/physical disabilities
  • Gypsies
  • Political/religious (Catholics/Jehovah Witnesses) dissidents, Socialists, Trade Unionists, Homosexuals, Communists
the holocaust had two main phases
The Holocaust had two main phases
  • Phase I 1933-1939
  • Saw Jews, Gypsies, People with handicaps as serious threat to purity of German “master race”
  • Hatemongering propaganda – blaming Jews for Germany’s economic depression and defeat in WWI
new laws enacted against jews
New Laws enacted against Jews
  • Forced to quit civil service jobs, boycott Jewish businesses
  • Stripped of citizenship (Nuremburg Laws)
  • Segregated – no public school, cinemas, vacation resorts, or even walking in certain German cities
  • Took over Jewish businesses
  • Band intermarriages
kristallnacht 1938 the night of broken glass
Kristallnacht 1938“The night of broken glass”
  • Organized riot of physical destruction of Jewish synagogues, arrest of Jews, destroying of Jewish homes and murders
first organized round up
First Organized Round up…
  • Began after Kristallnacht of German/Austrian Jews
  • 30, 000 Jewish men were sent to Dachau and other concentration camps with several 100 Jewish women sent to prison
phase i possibility of fleeing dims
Phase I – Possibility of fleeing dims
  • During phase I approx. 1, 500, 000 Jews rounded up and shot
  • Emphasis changing to extermination camps (murdered in gas chambers), concentration camps (where prisoners worked to death as slave labour)
  • Jews attempting to flee to other areas (Palestine, Latin America, other European countries)
  • Others hindered by lack of money, unable to obtain visas/sponsors, or unwilling to uproot selves
phase ii 1939 1945
Phase II 1939 - 1945
  • September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland – the beginning of WWII
  • Hitler orders mass executions – creation of mobile killing sites – Most famous: Babi Yar where 33, 000 people killed, mostly Jews
  • Creation of Ghettos – confined spaces for Jews, & labour camps in addition to concentration camps “Night and Fog Decree”
  • Jewish men dig own graves before being executed as SS and German labour service look on
  • Last Jew on edge of grave before execution
star of david
Star of David
  • September 1, 1941 – Jews ordered to wear the yellow star
  • 6 point star created from two interlocking triangles – each point represents trust in God, his rule over the universe and all six directions (N, S, E, W, & up/down)
  • All Jews over 10 years of age had to wear the star – it served as a marker, isolation, failing to wear the star meant certain death
the final solution
The Final Solution
  • 1942-1944 – Elimination of ghettos as residents deported to concentration/extermination camps
  • January 1942 – Decision to implement The Final Solution – a formal German state policy to exterminate the Jews
  • Final Solution was carried out by the SS and the Gestapo
killing sites
Killing Sites
  • 1. Belzec
  • 2. Sobibor
  • 3. Treblinka
  • 4. Chelmo
  • 5. Majdanek
  • 6. Auschwitz - Birkenau
  • Sites chosen because close to rail line and rural
statistics killing sites
Statistics – Killing Sites
  • Belzec – 600, 000 gassed (May 1942)
  • Sobibor – 200, 000 (May ’42-Oct.’43)
  • Treblinka – 750, 000 (July ’42-Nov. ’43)
  • Auschwitz-Bikenau – mass murder daily routine – 1.25 million killed (9/10 Jews)
the road to auschwitz was built by hate but paved by indifference
“The road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved by indifference.”
  • Main camp gate to Auschwitz
  • Motto: “Arbeit Macht Frei” meaning “Work Makes us Free”
  • The Barrack City
murder methods
Murder Methods
  • Arrived by rail from across Europe
  • Men & women separated
  • Forced to undress and pass over valuables
  • Sent to gas chambers disguised as shower rooms
  • Small minority selected for labour (exposed to malnutrition, hard labour, disease, & medical experiments)
Boys imprisoned in Auschwitz look out beyond barbed wire
  • Approx. 40, 000 Polish children kidnapped and imprisoned for slave labour
gas chambers last gas chamber used in auschwitz october30 1944
Gas Chambers(Last gas chamber used in Auschwitz – October30, 1944)
  • Zyklon B pellets (Hydrocyanic acid) – vaporizes when exposed to air, intended as insecticide/disinfectant
  • Found could kill humans through experimentation
  • Disguised shower rooms as gas chambers (air tight) pellets dropped through air shaft
  • Bitter almond smell, deprived body of oxygen
  • Left blue residue still inside intact gas chambers
Clothing from children gassed at AuschwitzBy February ’43 800 boxcars of confiscated goods left Auschwitz
Crematorium ovens in Buchenwald concentration camp
  • Soldiers view pile of cremated remains outside crematorium in Buchenwald
famous photo tsvi nussbaum famous diary anne frank
Famous Photo – Tsvi NussbaumFamous Diary – Anne Frank
  • Captures essence of the horrors of the Holocaust
  • Warsaw 1943, a little Jewish boy raises his arms in surrender with lowered eyes as a Nazi soldier trains his machine gun on him
  • What happened to him?
  • Anne Frank – hid from Germans, betrayed and died in concentration camp – father published her diary
  • Pockets of resistance existed
  • White Rose – group of university students opposed to Nazis, leaflets on views, leaders executed
  • Oskar Schindler – set up business employing Jews, prevented their departure to camps, protection through bribery of Nazis
the end of the war in view
The end of the war in view…
  • 1944 War turning in favour of Allies
  • Germans attempt to cover actions
  • “Death Marches” bringing Jews into camps within Germany to prevent liberation
  • 1945 Nazi Germany collapsed
what happened to the jews after the holocaust
What happened to the Jews after the Holocaust?
  • Hundreds of thousands homeless seeking a new life
  • Many wished to return to Palestine (only 10, 000 allowed)
  • Sought remnants of families/fate of family and friends
  • Many started new lives in Britain, U.S., France, Israel, etc.
canada and the holocaust
Canada and The Holocaust
  • Canada’s record of accepting Jewish refugees one of the poorest
  • 1939 – 1945 – only 5, 000 Jewish immigrants allowed into Canada, compared to the U.S. – 200, 000 or Britain – 195, 000
  • Requests previously often denied
famous quote martin niemoller 1892 1984
Famous QuoteMartin Niemoller 1892 - 1984
  • “First they came for the Communists, but I was not a Communist, so I did not speak out; they came for the Socialists and the Trade Unionists, but I was not one of them, so I did not speak out; Then they came for the Jews, but I was not Jewish, so I did not speak out. And when they came for me, there was no one left to speak out for me.”